Association for Information Systems

Special Interest Group on Human Computer Interaction

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Published Papers - Journals

Published papers are available from speakers and members at our conferences.

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies
Special Section on HCI Research in Management Information Systems
Vol. 64, No. 9, 2006


GUEST EDITORS

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Ping Zhang, Syracuse University
Scott McCoy, College of William and Mary
Mun Yi, University of South Carolina

BACKGROUND

This special section comprises expansions of the best completed research papers from the HCI tracks at AMCIS 2005 and PACIS 2005. Papers that successfully underwent the additional 2 rounds of review process following AMCIS/PACIS are included in this special section.

PAPERS IN THE SPECIAL ISSUE

Editorial: Human–Computer Interaction Research in the Management Information Systems Discipline 
Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, Ping Zhang, Scott McCoy, and Mun Yi 

Weblog Success: Exploring the Role of Technology 
Helen S. Du and Christian Wagner 

Weblogs have recently gained considerable media attention. Leading weblog sites are already attracting millions of visitors. Yet, success in the highly competitive world of weblogs is not easily achieved. This study seeks to explore weblog success from a technology perspective, i.e. from the impact of weblog-building technology (or blogging tool). Based on an examination of 126 highly successful weblogs tracked over a period of 3 months, we categorized weblogs in terms of popularity rank and growth, and evaluated the relationship between weblog success (in terms of popularity) and technology use. Our analysis indicates that weblog success is associated with the type of blogging tool used. We argue that technology characteristics affect the presentation and organization of weblog content, as well as the social interaction between bloggers, and in turn, affect weblog success or popularity improvement. Based on this analysis, we propose a techno-social success model for weblogs. This model postulates that a weblog’s success is mainly associated with its ability to provide value for its users and readers at the content, the technology, and the social levels.

The Effects of Post-Adoption Beliefs on the Expectation-Confirmation Model for Information Technology Continuance 
James Y.L. Thong, Se-Joon Hong and Kar Yan Tam 

The expectation-confirmation model (ECM) of IT continuance is a model for investigating continued information technology (IT) usage behavior. This paper reports on a study that attempts to expand the set of post-adoption beliefs in the ECM, in order to extend the application of the ECM beyond an instrumental focus. The expanded ECM, incorporating the post-adoption beliefs of perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment and perceived ease of use, was empirically validated with data collected from an on-line survey of 811 existing users of mobile Internet services. The data analysis showed that the expanded ECM has good explanatory power (R2=57.6% of continued IT usage intention and R2=67.8% of satisfaction), with all paths supported. Hence, the expanded ECM can provide supplementary information that is relevant for understanding continued IT usage. The significant effects of post-adoption perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment signify that the nature of the IT can be an important boundary condition in understanding the continued IT usage behavior. At a practical level, the expanded ECM presents IT product/service providers with deeper insights into how to address IT users’ satisfaction and continued patronage.

Studying information seeking on the non-English Web: An experiment on a Spanish business Web portal 
Wingyan Chung 

The Internet is estimated to grow significantly as access to Web content in some non-English languages continues to increase. However, prior research in human–computer interaction (HCI) has implicitly assumed the primary language used on the Web to be English. This assumption is not true for many non-English-speaking regions where rapidly growing on-line populations access the Web in their native languages. For example, Latin America, where the majority of people speak Spanish, will have the fastest growing population in coming decades. However, existing Spanish search engines lack search, browse, and analysis capabilities. The research reported here studied human information seeking on the non-English Web. In it we developed a Spanish business Web portal that supports searching, browsing, summarization, categorization, and visualization of Spanish business Web pages. Using 42 Spanish speakers as subjects we conducted a two-phase experiment to evaluate this portal and found that, compared with a Spanish search engine and a Spanish Web directory, it achieved significantly better user ratings on information quality, cross-regional search capability, system performance attributes, and overall satisfaction. Subjects’ verbal comments strongly favored the search and browse functionality and user interface of our portal. As the Web becomes more international, this research makes three contributions: (1) an empirical evaluation of the performance level of a Spanish search portal; (2) an examination of the information quality, cross-regional search capability and usability of search engines for the non-English Web; and (3) a better understanding of non-English Web searching.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The guest editors thank the co-editors-in-chief, Enrico Motta and Susan Wiedenbeck, for their strong support of the importance of HCI research in the MIS discipline and for their guidance in bringing this special section to fruition. We also thank Fred Kop, journal manager of IJHCS, for his help and support during the editorial process. We thank the reviewers for their timely and insightful reviews which enabled us to complete the two rounds of reviews within a relatively short time frame of six months! The reviewers for this special section are Diane Alonso, Hoon Cha, Hock Chuan Chan, Rick Downing, Andrea Everard, Stephanie Haas, Jon Heales, Traci Hess, Weiyin Hong, Yujong Hwang, Chuck Kacmar, Dan Kim, Hee-Woong Kim, Ruth King, Zoonky Lee, Chang Liu, Eleanor Loiacono, Nelson Massad, Terry Ryan, Hong Sheng, Heshan Sun, Chuan-Hoo Tan, Ron Thomson, Raul Trejo, and John Wells.

Journal of Management Information Systems Special Section on HCI Research in MIS
Winter 2005-2006, Vol. 22, No. 3

GUEST EDITORS

Ping Zhang, Syracuse University

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Izak Benbasat, University of British Columbia

BACKGROUND

Human-Computer Interaction or Human Factors studies in MIS are concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts (Zhang et al. 2002). Although HCI studies in MIS share common interests and concerns with HCI studies in other disciplines such as Computer Science, Psychology, and Ergonomics (Zhang et al. 2003), HCI studies in MIS are also distinctive in its own ways. An MIS researcher’s perspective affords emphasis and special importance to managerial and organizational contexts by focusing on analysis of tasks and outcomes at a level that is relevant to organizational performance and effectiveness. The two main distinctive features of MIS when compared to other ‘homes’ of HCI are its business application and management orientations (Nah et al. 2005; Zhang et al. 2004).

MIS-oriented HCI issues have been addressed since the earliest studies in the MIS discipline. Culnan (1986) identified nine factors or subfields in early MIS publications (1972-1982). Of these nine, three are related to issues in humans interacting with computers. In a second study of a later period of MIS publications (1980-1985), Culnan (1987) found the MIS field to be composed of five areas of study, one of which, individual (micro) approaches to MIS design and use, is closely related to human-computer interaction. After surveying 50 years of MIS publications in the Management Science journal, Banker and Kauffman (Banker et al. 2004) identified HCI as one of five main research streams in MIS and predicted that interest in HCI research will resurge.

The prediction of the resurge has already taken place. MIS scholars’ interest in HCI has greatly increased in recent years and HCI has been gaining importance in the MIS discipline. For example, a large number of MIS scholars have self-reported their research interests in HCI-related issues and in teaching HCI-related topics (Zhang et al. 2002). HCI courses are also offered in many MIS programs (Carey et al. 2004; Chan et al. 2003; Kutzschan et al. 2005). HCI is recognized as an important topic in the most recent model curriculum for Masters in Information Systems majors (Gorgone et al. 2005). Both the total numbers and percentages of HCI studies published in primary MIS journals have increased over the recent years (Zhang et al. 2005). There are two forthcoming volumes on HCI research in MIS (Galletta et al. 2006; Zhang et al. 2006) that are part of the Advances in Management Information Systems series. Major MIS conferences, such as International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS), Americas Conferences on Information Systems (AMCIS), Pacific Asia Conferences on Information Systems (PACIS), and European Conferences on Information Systems (ECIS), have been paying attention to HCI studies over many years. Most of them have started to set up specifically-designated HCI tracks (ICIS started this in 2004, AMCIS in 2002, PACIS in 2005, and ECIS in 2006.) There is a workshop devoted to HCI research in the MIS discipline that started in 2002 – the pre-ICIS Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS. Finally, an official organization of HCI in MIS, the AIS Special Interest Group on HCI (SIGHCI), was established in 2001 to promote and support HCI research, teaching and practice in MIS (Zhang 2004).

This JMIS special section becomes the 5th journal special issue that are sponsored by AIS SIGHCI.

MANUSCRIPT SELECTION PROCESS FOR SPECIAL SECTION

The papers for this special section are the expanded versions of the best papers from the 2nd Pre-ICIS Workshop on HCI Research in MIS, held in December 2003 in Seattle, Washington. A total of 42 papers were submitted to the workshop of which 17 were accepted for presentations. Nine of the 17 papers were selected for consideration in this special section. The authors of these nine papers expanded their manuscripts based on feedback from the workshop reviews and comments from the participants, and enhanced the theoretical, conceptual and empirical content of their papers. Each of the resulting manuscripts was then reviewed by one original reviewer from the workshop and two or three new reviewers. After three rounds of rigorous peer review and editorial feedback from the special section guest editors, four papers were accepted for this special section of JMIS.

PAPERS IN THE SPECIAL SECTION

This special section contains one introduction and four papers that illustrate some of the many interesting current HCI issues and concerns within the MIS discipline. The papers evolve around the theme of decision making in IT use and adoption. The first three papers examine interface issues and their impact on decision making and problem solving. The last paper examines the impact of task type on decision making relating to adoption of mobile technology for commerce.

Involvement and Decision-Making Performance with a Decision Aid: The Influence of Social Multimedia, Gender, and Playfulness

Traci Hess, Mark Fuller, and John Mathew

The study explored how multimedia vividness and the use of computer-based social cues can influence involvement with technology and decision-making outcomes by taking into account two individual differences, gender and computer playfulness. Findings indicate that personality similarity between the user and the decision aid as well as computer playfulness result in increased involvement with the decision aid. In addition, women reported higher levels of involvement with the decision aid. Increased levels of multimedia vividness are found to have a contradictory effect, with animation actually reducing involvement with the decision aid.

How Presentation Flaws Affect Perceived Site Quality, Trust, and Intentions to Purchase from an On-Line Store

Andrea Everard and Dennis Galletta

This paper studied the impact of three types of presentation flaws (errors, poor style, and incompleteness) on users’ perceived quality and trust of e-commerce web sites as well as their intentions to purchase from the sites. The highest perceived quality was reported for web sites without flaws and a pattern of diminishing returns was observed with each subsequent flaw perceived. The findings indicate that errors, poor style, and incompleteness influence perceived quality via the perception of these flaws, and perceived quality influences trust which in turn affects purchase intentions. Because it is the perception of flaws on web sites rather than the actual presence of flaws that affects users’ quality assessments, it is important for web stores to pay attention to how the features of web sites are perceived b y consumers. The findings indicate that presentation flaws influence perceived quality via an individual’s perception of them, which may be highly subjective, for example, in the case of poor style. Perceived quality influences trust, which in turn affects purchase intentions.

Investigating Coherence and Multimedia Effects of a Technology-Mediated Collaborative Environment

Andrew Gemino, Drew Parker, and Adrienne Olnick Kutzschan

In this paper, the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning was applied to assess the coherence and multimedia design principles of a technology-mediated collaborative environment. The study examined the impact of the context relevance of graphics embedded into the background of a collaborative interface. The results indicate that including context relevant graphics can enhance knowledge acquisition, while including irrelevant graphical information neither adversely affects nor fosters acquisition. The results support the coherence and multimedia principles of the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning in the technology-mediated collaborative environment.

Moderating Effects of Task Type on Wireless Technology Acceptance

Xiaowen Fang, Susy Chan, Jacek Brzezinski, and Shuang Xu

Despite the many IS studies on user acceptance of various technologies, few studies emphasize the role and impact of task types on user acceptance. The authors addressed just such an issue in their paper. Three task categories were identified in the wireless context: (1) general tasks that do not involve transactions and gaming; (2) gaming tasks; and (3) transactional tasks. A validated conceptual model for wireless technology adoption indicates that task type moderates the effects of four possible determinants: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived playfulness, and perceived security. User intention to perform general tasks that do not involve transactions and gaming is influenced by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use; user intention to play games is affected by perceived playfulness; and user intention to carry out transactions is influenced by perceived usefulness and perceived security. The study results have practical implications to designing wireless devices to better suit specific task types.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The guest editors thank the Editor-in-Chief, Vladimir Zwass, for his support in bringing this special section into fruition. We appreciate the cooperation of the authors who worked so diligently to produce their best work. We are indebted to the reviewers who helped to develop these manuscripts into their best form. The reviewers are Henri Barki, Dinesh Batra, Traci Carte, Ron Cenfetell, Patrick Chau, Jane Gravill, Zhenghui Jiang, Paul Lowry, Jiye Mao, Lorne Olfman, Judy Olson, Jonathan Palmer, Jeff Parson, Tom Roberts, Terry Shaft, Mark Silver, Diane Strong, James Teng, Peter Todd, Lai Lai Tung, Viswanath Venkatesh, Susan Wiedenbeck, Wei Zhang, and Ilze Zigurs.

REFERENCES

  • Banker, R.D., and Kauffman, R.J. “The evolution of research on Information Systems: A fiftieth-year survey of the literature in management science,” Management Science (50:3) 2004, pp 281-298.

  • Carey, J., Galletta, D., Kim, J., Te’eni, D., Wildermuth, B., and Zhang, P. “The Role of HCI in IS Curricula: A Call to Action,” Communications of the AIS (13:23) 2004, pp 357-379.

  • Chan, S.S., Wolfe, R.J., and Fang, X. “Issues and strategies for integrating HCI in Masters level MIS and e-commerce programs,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (59:4), 10 2003, pp 497-520.

  • Culnan, M.J. “The intellectual development of Management Information Systems, 1972-1982: A co-citation analysis,” Management Science (32:2), February 1986, pp 156-172.

  • Culnan, M.J. “Mapping the Intellectual Structure of MIS 1980-1985: A Co-citation Analysis,” MIS Quarterly (11:3) 1987, pp 341-353.

  • Galletta, D., and Zhang, P. (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems – Applications. M. E. Sharpe, Inc., Armonk, NY, 2006.

  • Gorgone, J.T., Gray, P., Stohr, E.A., Valacich, J.S., and Wigand, R.T. “MSIS 2006 Curriculum Review,” Communications of the AIS (15) 2005, pp 544-554.

  • Kutzschan, A.O., and Webster, J. “HCI as MIS,” in: Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Foundations, P. Zhang and D. Galletta (eds.), M.E. Sharpe, 2005.

  • Nah, F.F.-H., Zhang, P., and McCoy, S. “Editorial Introduction: HCI in MIS,” International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction (19:1) 2005, pp 3-6.

  • Zhang, P. “AIS SIGHCI Three-Year Report,” in: AIS SIGHCI Newsletter (http://sigs.aisnet.org/sighci/), 2004, pp. 2-6.

  • Zhang, P., Benbasat, I., Carey, J., Davis, F., Galletta, D., and Strong, D. “Human-Computer Interaction Research in the MIS Discipline,” Communications of the AIS (9:20) 2002, pp 334-355.

  • Zhang, P., and Dillon, A. “HCI and MIS: Shared concerns,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (59:4), Oct. 2003, pp 397-402.

  • Zhang, P., and Galletta, D. (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems – Foundations. M. E. Sharpe, Inc., Armonk, NY, 2006.

  • Zhang, P., and Li, N. “The intellectual development of Human-Computer Interaction research in MIS: A survey of the MIS literature (1990-2002),” Journal of Association for Information Systems (6:11), November 2005, pp 227-292.

  • Zhang, P., Nah, F.F.-H., and Preece, J. “HCI Studies in MIS,” Behaviour & Information Technology (23:3), May-June 2004, pp 147-151.

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Special Issue: HCI Studies in Management Information Systems
Vol. 19, No. 1, 2002


GUEST EDITORS

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Ping Zhang, Syracuse University
Scott McCoy, College of William and Mary

BACKGROUND

Human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important area of research and practice that cuts across several disciplines including Industrial Engineering, Management Information Systems (MIS), Computer Science, Information Science, Psychology, Sociology, and Anthropology. HCI research within the MIS discipline has some distinct features, which are related to the evolution and current state of the MIS discipline. MIS started as applied Computer Science in the 1970s and gradually developed into a more social science oriented discipline (Baskerville & Myers, 2002). MIS is broadly defined as “the effective design, delivery and use of information systems in organizations” (Keen, 1980). The two distinguishing features of MIS from other ‘homes’ of HCI are its business-application and management orientations (Zhang, Nah, & Preece, 2004). HCI is an important area of research that is gaining increasing attention in MIS (Zhang, Benbasat, Carey, Davis, Galletta, & Strong, 2002). In general, HCI researchers in the MIS discipline are more interested in studying and understanding the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks in the business, managerial, and organizational contexts (Zhang et al., 2002). Hence, the focus lies in understanding the relationships and interactions between people (e.g., management, users, implementers, designers, developers, senior executives, and vendors), tasks, contexts, information, and technology.

The Association for Information Systems (AIS) is the premier global organization for academics specializing in Management Information Systems. A Special Interest Group on Human-Computer Interaction (SIGHCI) was founded in 2001 by Ping Zhang from Syracuse University and Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah from University of Nebraska-Lincoln. AIS SIGHCI provides a forum for AIS members to discuss, develop, and promote a range of issues related to the history, reference disciplines, theories, practice, methodologies and techniques, new developments, and applications of the interaction between humans, information, technologies, and tasks, especially in the business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. The mission of AIS SIGHCI is twofold: to facilitate the exchange, development, communication, and dissemination of information among AIS members, and to promote research related to human-computer interaction within business, managerial, and organizational contexts among AIS members and to the larger community of practitioners and scholars (Zhang, 2004).

Since AIS SIGHCI’s inception, HCI has become a common theme in major MIS conferences, as demonstrated by the successful HCI mini-tracks/tracks at the Americas Conferences on Information Systems in August and the HCI workshops held prior to the International Conferences on Information Systems in December each year. These meetings have yielded a number of special issues in top MIS and HCI journals, including International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (Volume 59, Issue 4, October 2003), Journal of Association for Information Systems (January and March, 2004), Behaviour and Information Technology (Volume 23, Issue 3, May-June, 2004), and Journal of Management Information Systems (forthcoming in 2005).

These special issues represent AIS SIGHCI’s continued outreach efforts to establish dialogues, synergies, and connections with the HCI communities across various disciplines. Additional recent efforts of AIS SIGHCI include organizing two “HCI in MIS” sessions at the 2005 HCI International Conference and participating in the ‘User Experience’ development consortium at the CHI 2005 conference (Galletta, Zhang, & Nah, 2005). Given the shared HCI interests, concerns, and goals among various disciplines (Zhang & Dillon, 2003), we believe that HCI interest groups from various disciplines need to carry out more dialogue exchanges with each other to share their multifaceted perspectives and facilitate cross-fertilization of ideas. We envision that the HCI field as a whole can benefit from such collaborations and dialogues, and establish greater synergies by working together. We hope this special issue will help to achieve the above goals by facilitating greater collaborations between SIGHCI and various international HCI communities.

This IJHCI special issue is the 4th journal special issue sponsored by AIS SIGHCI.

PAPERS IN THE SPECIAL ISSUE

Visualizing E-Brand Personality: Exploratory Studies on Visual Attributes and E-Brand Personalities in Korea 
Su-e Park, Dongsung Choi, and Jinwoo Kim 

The brand personality of an online product and service, usually represented by a web site, is known as its e-brand personality. Although, in the competitive conditions of online markets, e-brand personality is agreed to be an important factor in securing distinctive identity, few studies have suggested how to establish e-brand personality through the visual design of web sites. This study explores the feasibility of constructing target e-brand personalities for online services by using visual attributes. It consists of three consecutive studies. The first identifies four major dimensions of e-brand personality on diverse web sites. The second uses 52 experimental home pages to identify key visual attributes associated with those four personality dimensions. The third is to explore whether those findings from the second study can be applied in constructing websites for online services. The results show that two visual attributes, simplicity and cohesion, are closely related to a bold personality. Three attributes, contrast, density, and regularity, can be used to create a web site that has an analytical personality. Contrast, cohesion, density, and regularity are closely related to a web site that is perceived to have a friendly personality. Regularity and balance were expected to be related to the sophisticated personality dimension, but no such relation was identified in our third study. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications, limitations, and future research directions.

The Enhanced Restricted Focus Viewer 
Peter Tarasewich, Marc Pomplun, Stephanie Fillion, and Daniel Broberg 

The Enhanced Restricted Focus Viewer (ERFV) is a unique software tool for tracking the visual attention of users in hyperlinked environments such as Web sites. The software collects data such as mouse clicks along with the path of the user’s visual attention as they browse a site. Unlike traditional eye-tracking procedures, the ERFV requires no hardware to operate other than a personal computer. In addition to cost and time savings, the ERFV also allows the administration of usability testing to groups of subjects simultaneously. A laboratory test comparing the ERFV to a hardware-based eye-tracking system showed that the two methods compare favorably in terms of how well they track a user’s visual attention. The usefulness of the ERFV as a usability testing tool was demonstrated through an experiment that evaluated two Web sites that were equivalent in content but differed in terms of design. While several open issues concerning the ERFV still remain, some of these issues are being addressed through ongoing research efforts.

Issues in Building Multi-User Interfaces 
V. Srinivasan Rao, Wai-Lan Luk, and John Warren 

The proliferation of interest in collaborative computer applications in the past decade has resulted in a corresponding increase in the interest in multi-user interfaces. The current research seeks to contribute to an understanding of the process of developing user models for group interaction, and to the design and implementation of multi-user interfaces based on the model. We use group ranking as an exemplar task. User requirements were identified, by observing groups perform the ranking task in a non-computer environment. A design was proposed based on the identified requirements and a prototype implemented. Feedback from informal user evaluation of the implemented interface is reported. Insights on the methodology are discussed.

Online Consumer Trust and Live Help Interfaces: The Effects of Text-to-Speech Voice and 3D Avatars 
Lingyun Qiu and Izak Benbasat 

With the increasing prevalence of online shopping, many companies have begun to provide Live Help functions, through instant messaging or text chatting, on their websites to facilitate interactions between online consumers and customer service representatives (CSRs). The continuing reliance of these functions on text-based communication limits non-verbal communication with consumers and the social contexts for the information conveyed, but with the help of emerging multimedia technologies, companies can now use computer-generated voice and humanoid avatars to embody CSRs, thus enriching the interactive experiences of their customers. 

In this study, a laboratory experiment was conducted to empirically test the effects of Text-To-Speech (TTS) voice and 3D avatars on consumer trust towards CSRs. TTS voice was implemented to deliver answers aloud. A 3D avatar served as the humanoid representation of a CSR. The results demonstrate that the presence of TTS voice significantly increases consumers’ cognitive and emotional trust toward the CSR. These findings offer practitioners guidelines to improve the interface design of real time human-to-human communications for e-commerce websites.

An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Web Personalization at Different Stages of Decision-Making 
Shuk Ying HO and Kar Yan TAM 

Personalization agents are incorporated in many websites to tailor content and interfaces for individual users. But in contrast to the proliferation of personalized web services worldwide, empirical research on the effects of web personalization is scant. How does exposure to personalized offers affect subsequent product consideration and choice outcome? Drawing on literature in human computer interaction (HCI) and user behavior, this research examines the effect of three major elements of web personalization strategies on users’ information processing through different decision-making stages: personalized content quality, feature overlapping among alternatives, and personalized message framing. These elements can be manipulated by a firm in implementing its personalization strategy. A study using a personalized ring-tone download website was conducted. The findings provide empirical evidence of the effects of web personalization. In particular, when users are forming their consideration sets, the agents can play a role in helping users discover new products and/or generate demand for unfamiliar products. Once a decision has been made, however, the personalization agent’s persuasive effects diminish. Our results establish that the role of personalization agents changes at different stages of users’ decision-making process.

Beyond Perceptions and Usage: Impact of Nature of IS Use on IS-enabled Productivity 
Vikas Jain and Shivraj Kanungo 

Assessing individual performance impacts from information system (IS) use has been a key area of concern for IS researchers for many years. However, past studies have reported mixed results about the relationship between information system use and performance impacts at the individual level. The research reported in this paper has two primary objectives: (1) to propose a model of individual IS-enabled productivity that focuses not only on the usage of information systems but also the nature of this usage, and (2) to empirically test the model across two IS applications. The key premise in this research is that IS use is necessary but not sufficient to observe productivity gains and that nature of IS use potentially mediates the relationship between IS use and IS-enabled productivity. We validate our research model through a survey of 486 individuals across six organizations. Results from this study confirm the proposition that the nature of IS use is as important as the duration of use of an information system as a determinant of IS-enabled productivity. Based on our findings, we provide theoretical and managerial implications of the relationship between IS-enabled productivity and IS use.

Role of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) Factors as Moderators of Occupational Stress and Work Exhaustion 
K.S. Rajeswari and R. N. Anantharaman 

Software professionals perform boundary-spanning activities and hence need strong interpersonal, technical and organizational knowledge to be professionally competent. They have to perform in a demanding work environment that is characterized by strict deadlines, differing time zones, interdependency in teams, increased interaction with clients and extended work hours. These characteristics lead to occupational stress and work exhaustion. Yet, the impact of stress is felt in different ways by different people even if they perform the same functions. These differences in the perception of stress can be due to varying confidence in their technical capabilities. Individuals possess varying technical capabilities based on their acquisition of technical skills, comfort level in using the technology and intrinsic motivation. These attributes represent the HCI personality of software professionals. It is therefore the focus of this paper to examine, if these HCI factors moderate the relationship between occupational stress and work exhaustion. Data was collected from software professionals located in Chennai and Bangalore in India. Data revealed that HCI factors have main effect on work exhaustion, but does not have moderating effects on work exhaustion. Control over technology variable emerged as the key variable among the HCI factors that affects software professionals’ ability to cope with stress and work exhaustion.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The guest editors are grateful to the editors-in-chief for their strong support and encouragement to bring the idea of editing a special issue on ‘HCI studies in MIS’ to fruition. The guest editors also thank the following reviewers who have not only played an important role in quality control during the entire review process but have also contributed to the development of the manuscripts included in this special issue: Ranida Boothanom, Xiaowen Fang, Holtjona Galanxhi, Dennis Galletta, Jane Gravill, Traci Hess, Andrea Houston, Richard Johnson, Brian Jones, Jinwoo Kim, Barbara Klein, Kevin Kuan, Dahui Li, Na Li, Nancy Lightner, Eleanor Loiacono, Tom Roberts, Sharath Sasidh, Tom Stafford, Heshan Sun, Dov Te’eni, Raul Trejo, G.J. Vreede, Sidne Ward, John Wells, and Mun Yi.

Behaviour & Information Technology
Special Issue on HCI in MIS, Vol. 23, No. 3, May-June 2004

GUEST EDITORS

Ping Zhang, Syracuse University
Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Jenny Preece, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

BACKGROUND

AIS SIGHCI sponsored the “HCI Studies in MIS” mini-track at AMCIS’03 from which the papers in this special edition were selected. This mini-track was the most popular and largest at AMCIS’03. It attracted forty paper submissions of which twenty-seven were accepted for presentation. The final program of AMCIS’03 included ten HCI sessions that ran throughout the entire conference: eight regular paper sessions each featuring three papers, one mentored round table session with three papers by doctoral students, and one HCI panel discussion on the role of HCI in MIS curriculum. The papers covered a variety of HCI topics including Website usability, online consumer behaviour in Web environments, conceptualisation of online shopping experience, cognitive style in decision support environments, Website personalization for relationship management, consumer trust in online shopping, credibility of online information, user frustration in the workplace, social cues and personality in decision making environments, and social and usage process motivation in Internet use.

From the twenty-four accepted regular papers, the authors of the eight best papers were invited to extend and submit their work for consideration in this special issue. Two rounds of rigorous double-blind reviews yielded the three papers in this special issue.

This BIT special issue builds on the following journal special issues that are sponsored by AIS SIGHCI:

  • International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, special issue on “HCI and MIS: Shared Concerns” (Zhang and Dillon 2003) that features the best papers from the HCI mini-track at the AMCIS’02 conference in Dallas, TX, 2002.
  • Journal of the Association for Information Systems, special theme on “HCI Studies in MIS” (edited by Sirkka Jarvenpaa, Izak Benbasat, and Ping Zhang) that features the best papers from the first annual pre-ICIS workshop on HCI Research in MIS that was held in Barcelona, Spain, 2002.

Together, these special issues are part of a long-term outreach effort of AIS SIGHCI to enhance communication among scholars with HCI interests who work in related fields.

PAPERS IN THE SPECIAL ISSUE

HCI in MIS, Editoral Introduction

Ping Zhang, Syracuse University
Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Jenny Preece, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is gaining momentum in many IT fields as computing technology increasingly impacts individuals, businesses, society, commerce and government throughout the world. More recently, the Association for Information Systems (AIS, http://aisnet.org) recognized the need to promote HCI in the Management Information Systems (MIS) field. The first step taken by AIS was to approve the creation of the Special Interest Group on Human-Computer Interaction (AIS SIGHCI, HCI HOME ). This group was established in 2001 and has run successful tracks and workshops at major MIS conferences since then. A recent conference was the Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS’03) at which the organizers of the HCI mini-track proposed publishing extended versions of the best papers in this special issue.

There are three reasons for producing this special issue. The first is to make BIT readers aware of the work of the AIS SIGHCI members; the second is to tell readers about some of this work; and the third is to encourage future collaboration between AIS SIGHCI and the international HCI community. To achieve these goals and to position the group and its work, we will first briefly describe the historical development and current status of the Management Information Systems discipline and the kind of Human-Computer Interaction research that is being conducted in MIS. We then describe the AMCIS conference from which the papers were selected. Finally, we conclude by calling for better communication and collaboration among HCI scholars in different disciplines.

Size and structure matter to mobile users: an empirical study of the effects of screen size, information structure, and task complexity on user activities with standard Web phones

Minhee Chae and Jinwoo Kim, Human Computer Interaction Lab, Yonsei University, Seoul Korea

The small screens of mobile Internet devices, combined with the increasing complexity of mobile tasks, create a serious obstacle to usability in the mobile Internet. One way to circumvent the obstacle is to organize an information structure with efficient depth/ breadth tradeoffs. A controlled lab experiment was conducted to investigate how screen size and information structure affect user behaviors and perceptions. The moderating effects of task complexity on the relationship between screen size/information structure and user navigation/perceptions were also investigated. Study results indicate that both information structure and screen size significantly affect the navigation behavior and perceptions of mobile Internet users. Task complexity was also found to heighten the influence of information structure on user behavior and perceptions. The paper ends with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications, among them a key implication for mobile Internet businesses: for corporate intranet systems as well as m-commerce transaction systems, the horizontal depth of information structures should be adapted to task complexity and anticipated screen size.

The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention

Richard H. Hall, University of Missouri – Rolla 
Patrick Hanna, Matrikon Corporation

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of web page text/background color combination on readability, retention, aesthetics, and behavioral intention. One hundred and thirty-six participants studied two Web pages, one with educational content and one with commercial content, in one of four color-combination conditions. Major findings were: a) Colors with greater contrast ratio generally lead to greater readability; b) Color combination did not significantly affect retention; c) Preferred colors (i.e., blues and chromatic colors) lead to higher ratings of aesthetic quality and intention to purchase; and d) Ratings of aesthetic quality were significantly related to intention to purchase.

A study on tolerable waiting time: how long are Web users willing to wait?

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Web users often face a long waiting time for downloading Web pages. Although various technologies and techniques have been implemented to alleviate the situation and to comfort the impatient users, little research has been done to assess what constitutes an acceptable and tolerable waiting time for Web users. This research reviews the literature on computer response time and users’ waiting time for download of Web pages, and assesses Web users’ tolerable waiting time in information retrieval. It addresses the following questions through an experimental study: What is the effect of feedback on users’ tolerable waiting time? How long are users willing to wait for a Web page to be downloaded before abandoning it? The results from this study suggest that the presence of feedback prolongs Web users’ tolerable waiting time and the tolerable waiting time for information retrieval is approximately 2 seconds.

 

ACKOWLEDGEMENTS

The special issue editors are grateful to the reviewers of this special issue. The reviewers are: Susy Chan, Mark Dishaw, Xavier Ferre, Richard Hall, Jinwoo Kim, Barbara Klein, Na Li, Nancy Lightner, Paul Lowry, Thomas Stafford, Diane Strong, Barbara Wildemuth, Vance Wilson, Mun Yi, and Mariam Zahed. We also thank BIT editor-in-chief Tom Stewart for his confidence in us and guidance in preparing this special issue.

Journal of the Association for Information Systems
Special Theme on HCI in MIS, January and March 2004


SPECIAL SENIOR EDITORS

Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa, University of Texas at Austin
Izak Benbasat, University of British Columbia
Ping Zhang, Syracuse University

BACKGROUND

AIS SIGHCI sponsored the first annual workshop on HCI Research in MIS, held in Barcelona, Spain, December 2002. It featured four invited presentations and eight peer-reviewed papers.

From the presented research papers, the authors of the six papers were invited to extend and submit their work for consideration in this special theme. Two rounds of rigorous double-blind reviews yielded the two papers in this special theme.

This JAIS special theme builds on the following journal special issues that are sponsored by AIS SIGHCI:

  • International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, special issue on “HCI and MIS: Shared Concerns” (Zhang and Dillon 2003) that features the best papers from the HCI mini-track at the AMCIS02 conference in Dallas, TX, 2002.
  • Behaviour & Information Technology, special issue on “HCI Studies in MIS” (Zhang, Nah, and Preece 2004) that features the best papers from the HCI mini-track at the AMCIS03 conference in Tampa, FL, 2003.

Together, these special issues are part of a long-term outreach effort of AIS SIGHCI to enhance communication among scholars with HCI interests who work in related fields.

PAPERS IN THE SPECIAL THEME

Web Site Delays: How Tolerant are Users?

Dennis F. Galletta, University of Pittsburgh
Raymond Henry, Clemson University
Scott McCoy, College of William & Mary
Peter Polak, University of Miami

Web page loading speed continues to vex users, even as broadband adoption continues to increase. Several studies have addressed delays both in the context of Web sites as well as interactive corporate systems, and a wide range of “rules of thumb” have been recommended. Some studies conclude that response times should be allowed to grow to no greater than 2 seconds while other studies provide cautions on delays of 12 seconds or more. One of the strongest conclusions had been that complex tasks seem to allow longer response times. This study examined, in an experimental setting, delay times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 seconds using 196 undergraduate students. It was hypothesized that longer and longer delays would cause diminishing negative effects on satisfaction, intentions to return to the site, and performance (number of tasks completed), that familiarity (mostly related to the site’s terminology) would moderate those relationships, and that satisfaction is positively related to intentions to return. Subjects were randomly assigned a single delay time and were asked to complete 9 search tasks, exploring a familiar and an unfamiliar site. All of the hypotheses were supported. Plots of the dependent variables performance, attitudes, and behavioral intentions, along those delays, indeed suggested the use of non-linear regression, and the explained variance was in the neighborhood of 2%, 5%, and 7%, respectively. Focusing only on the familiar site, explained variance in attitudes and behavioral intentions grew to about 16%. A sensitivity analysis implies that decreases in performance and behavioral intentions begin to flatten when the delays extend to 4 seconds or longer, and attitudes flatten when the delays extend to 8 seconds or longer. Future research should include other factors such as expectations, variability, and feedback, and other outcomes such as actual purchasing behavior, to more fully understand the effects of delays in today’s Web environment.

Knowledge-based Support in a Group Decision Making Context: An Expert-Novice Comparison

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Izak Benbasat, University of British Columbia

This research examines the use of knowledge-based and explanation facilities to support group decision making of experts versus novices. Consistent with predictions from the persuasion literature, our results show that experts exhibit a higher level of criticality and involvement in their area of expertise; this not only decreases their likelihood of being persuaded by a knowledge-based system, but also accounts for a lower group consensus among experts as compared to novices. Novices are more easily persuaded by the system and find the system to be more useful than experts do. This research integrates theories from the persuasion literature to understand expert-novice differences in group decision making in a knowledge-based support environment. The findings suggest that the analyses and explanations provided by knowledge-based systems better support the decision making of novices than experts. Future research is needed to integrate other types of information provision support (e.g., cognitive feedback) into knowledge-based systems to increase their effectiveness as a group decision support tool for domain experts.

ACKOWLEDGEMENTS

The special theme editors are grateful to the reviewers of this special theme. The reviewers are: Dennis Galletta, David Gefen, Elena Karahanna, Helen Kelly, Kai Lim, Moez Limayem, Susan K. Lippert, Fiona Nah, Jonathan Palmer, Suzanne Rivard, Dov Teeni, Ananth Srinivasan, Sherrie Xiao, and Youngjin Yoo

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies
Special Issue on HCI and MIS

GUEST EDITORS

Ping Zhang, School of Information Studies, Syracuse University, pzhang@syr.edu
Andrew Dillon, Information School, The University of Texas at Austin, adillon@ischool.utexas.edu

Background

The papers in this special issue are expansions of the best papers from the HCI Studies in MIS minitrack at the 8th Americas Conference on Information Systems, held in Dallas, TX August 2002 (AMCIS’02). This minitrack is the first one organized by SIGHCI. It attracted 27 submissions, among which 18 were accepted for presentation at the conference. Eleven of the 18 articles were in high quality and thus were invited for expansion and possible inclusion in the IJHCS special issue. Authors of ten papers responded. Each of the ten expansions went through a rigorous review process with three reviewers. Based on the review results and guest editors’ evaluation, six papers were conditionally accepted. After another round of revisions and guest editors’ evaluation, five were finally accepted for this special issue. The issue is expected to be published in Fall 2003.

HCI and MIS: Shared Concerns, Editoral Introduction(121KB)

Ping Zhang, Syracuse University
Andrew Dillon, The University of Texas at Austin

In an age of disciplinary shift and calls for greater cross-disciplinary interaction among various disciplines, it is timely to consider how related are those research areas that take the human use of computers as their basic area of concern. It is clear that research into the human response to technology has taken many forms and been given many names over the last few decades: human factors, information design, human-computer interaction, ergonomics, management information systems, information management, computer-supported collaborative work etc. Unfortunately, it is also too apparent from the literature on these topics that many of the key researchers and thinkers in these areas have tended to address audiences who identify with one rather than all of these areas. It may be that the issues involved are too wide for any one field to cover but it is also true that the exchange of ideas and the sharing of theoretical insights have been vexingly limited. Specifically, two largely independent literatures on humans and technology have emerged since the 1970s: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Management Information Systems (MIS). Both have their own conferences, journals, professional societies and research agenda yet both have research agendas on very similar problems. This special issue of IJHCS is the result of an attempt to bring these two fields of practice closer together. It is the first of a continuous effort of the Special Interest Group on Human-Computer Interaction of the Association for Information Systems (AIS SIGHCI) to disseminate research results on human aspects in MIS to other related fields.

The Evolution of U.S. State Government Homepages from 1997 to 2002 (3.7MB)

Terry Ryan, Claremont Graduate University
Richard H.G. Field, University of Alberta
Lorne Olfman, Claremont Graduate University

We examined the home pages of the 50 U.S. states over the years 1997 to 2002 to discover the dimensions underlying people’s perceptions of state government home pages, to observe how those dimensions have changed over the years, to identify different types of state home pages, and to see how these types have changed. We found that three primary dimensions explain the variation in perceptions of home pages. These are the layout of the page, its navigation support, and its information density. Over the years, variation in navigation support declined and variation in information density increased. We discovered that four types of state government home page have existed continuously from 1997 to 2001. These are the ‘Long List of Text Links’, the ‘Simple Rectangle’, the ‘Short L’, and the ‘High Density/Long L’. To this taxonomy, two other page types can be added: the ‘Portal’ page and the ‘Boxes’ page. The taxonomy we have identified allows for a better understanding of the design of U.S. state home pages, and may generalize to other categories of home pages.

Predicting the Use of Web-Based Information Systems: Self-Efficacy, Enjoyment, Learning Goal Orientation, and The Technology Acceptance Model(380 KB)

Mun Y. Yi, University of South Carolina 
Yujong Hwang, University of South Carolina

With the growing reliance on computerized systems and increasing rapidity of the introduction of new technologies, user acceptance of technology continues to be an important issue. Drawing upon recent findings in information systems, human computer interaction, and social psychology, the present research extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by incorporating the motivation variables of self-efficacy, enjoyment, and learning goal orientation in order to predict the use of Web-based information systems. One hundred nine subjects participated in the study, which was conducted in a field setting with the Blackboard system, a Web-based class management system. A survey was administered after a two-week trial period and the actual use of the system was recorded by the Blackboard system over eight weeks. The results largely support the proposed model, highlighting the important roles of self-efficacy, enjoyment, and learning goal orientation in determining the actual use of the system. Practical implications of the results are provided.

Predicting E-Services Adoption: A Perceived Risk Facets Perspective(595 KB)

Mauricio S. Featherman, Washington State University
Paul A. Pavlou, University of Southern California

Internet-delivered e-services are increasingly being made available to consumers; however, little is known about how consumers evaluate them for potential adoption. Past Technology Adoption Research has focused primarily on the positive utility gains attributable to system adoption. This research extends that approach to include measures of negative utility (potential losses) attributable to e-service adoption. Drawing from Perceived Risk Theory, specific risk facets were operationalized, integrated, and empirically tested within the Technology Acceptance Model resulting in a proposed e-services adoption model. Results indicated that e-services adoption is adversely affected primarily by performance-based risk perceptions, and perceived ease of use of the e-service reduced these risk concerns. Implications of integrating perceived risk into the proposed e-services adoption model are discussed.

A Person-Artifact-Task (PAT) Model of Flow Antecedents in Computer-Mediated Environments (296 KB)

Christina Finneran, Syracuse University 
Ping Zhang, Syracuse University

Flow theory has been applied to computer-mediated environments to study positive user experiences such as increased exploratory behavior, communication, learning, positive affect, and computer use. However, a review of the existing flow studies in computer-mediated environments in Psychology, Consumer Behavior, Communications, Human-Computer Interaction, and Management Information Systems shows ambiguities in the conceptualization of flow constructs and inconsistency in the flow models. It thus raises the question of whether the direct adoption of traditional flow theory is appropriate without a careful re-conceptualization to consider the uniqueness of the computer-mediated environments. This paper focuses on flow antecedents and identifies the importance of separating the task from the artifact within a computer-mediated environment. It proposes a component-based model that consists of person (P), artifact (A), and task (T), as well as the interactions of these components. The model, named the PAT model, is developed by understanding the original flow theory, reviewing existing empirical flow studies within computer-mediated environments, and analyzing the characteristics of computer-mediated environments. A set of propositions is constructed to demonstrate the predictive power of the model.

Issues and strategies for integrating HCI in masters level MIS and E-Commerce programs (416 KB)

Susy S. Chan, DePaul University
Rosalee Wolfe, DePaul University
Xiaowen Fang, DePaul University

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an important knowledge component for graduate Management Information Systems (MIS) and E-Commerce (EC) programs. HCI topics, such as user-centered design and usability testing, have begun to receive increasing attention in MIS/EC curricula because of their importance in the development of Web-based solutions. This paper discusses issues and approaches for integrating HCI topics into masters level MIS/EC programs. Research on HCI topics related to MIS provides a theoretical foundation for student learning. By bridging research with these curricula, researchers are challenged to examine how HCI approaches can improve user acceptance of new systems. A case study illustrates how HCI topics can be taught as a stand-alone course or incorporated in existing MIS/EC courses. Drawing from the case study, the paper also addresses pedagogical challenges regarding student skill sets, learning outcomes, innovative pedagogies, tools and technology, and HCI issues for advanced IS/EC topics.

Reviewers

We want to express our sincere appreciation to the eighteen reviewers who played a vital role in the process. These reviewers are: Guru Ashu, Susy Chan, Subhasish Dasgupta, Xiaowen Fang, Mauricio Featherman, Richard Field, Jane Gravill, Jeff Hsu, Yujong Hwang, Xiao Li, Shin-jeng Lin, Nancy Lightner, Barbara Marcolin, Lorne Olfman, Terry Ryan, Rosalee Wolfe, Mun Yin, and Wenli Zhu.

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Special Issue on Enterprise Resource Planning: Management, Social & Organizational Issues
Volume 16, Number 1, 2003

GUEST EDITOR

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

BACKGROUND

This Special Edition of IJHCI addresses the human-computer aspects of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation. It covers the management, social and organizational issues involved in ERP implementation.

PAPERS IN THE SPECIAL ISSUE

ERP Implementation: Chief Information Officers’ Perceptions of Critical Success Factors 
Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, Kathryn M. Zuckweiler, and Janet Lee-Shang Lau

This article reports the results of a survey of Chief Information Officers (CIOs) from Fortune 1000 companies on their perceptions of the critical success factors in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation. Through a review of the literature, we identified eleven critical success factors, with underlying sub-factors, for successful ERP implementation. We assessed the degree of criticality of each of these factors in a survey administered to the CIOs. The five most critical factors identified by the CIOs are top management support, project champion, ERP teamwork & composition, project management, and change management program & culture. The importance of each of these factors is discussed.

Implementation Partner Involvement and Knowledge Transfer in the Context of ERP Implementations
Marc N. Haines and Dale L. Goodhue

ERP systems are difficult and costly to implement. Studies show that a large portion of the overall implementation cost can be attributed to consulting fees. Indeed, hardly any organization has the internal knowledge and skills to implement an ERP system successfully without external help. Therefore it becomes crucial to use consultants effectively to improve the likelihood of success and simultaneously keep the overall costs low. In this article the authors draw from agency theory to generate a framework, which explains how consultant involvement and the knowledge of implementing organization can impact the outcome of the project. Portions of the framework are illustrated by examples from a series of interviews involving 12 companies that had implemented an ERP. It is suggested that choosing the right consultants and using their skills and knowledge appropriately, as well as transferring and retaining essential knowledge within the organization is essential to the overall success of an ERP system implementation.

A Process Change-Oriented Model for ERP Application
Majed Al-Mashari

Though the application of enterprise resource planning systems has become widespread, many organizational experiences have shown that resulting outcomes fall short of expectations. Best-practice experiences, however, have proven that effective application is centred on an integrative approach, which seeks to achieve a balance between certain key organizational elements. This paper presents a novel process change management-based model that considers the key areas in ERP implementation, including strategy, business processes, structure, culture, IT and managerial systems. The model is grounded by empirical-based evidence drawn from a survey of various organizational practices with ERP implementation.

Analyzing ERP Implementation at a Public University Using the Innovation Strategy Model
Keng Siau and Jake Messersmith

Enterprise Resource Planning systems have revolutionized the way companies are using information technology in their businesses. ERP was created in an effort to streamline business processes and has proven to be successful in many operations. Unfortunately, not all ERP implementations have met expectations. One way that businesses may be able to increase the success rates of their implementations is to embrace creativity and innovation in ERP implementation. In order for businesses to do this, they must first understand how creativity originates and how that creativity can be integrated into business solutions. This paper offers a case study to examine the ERP implementation at a public university and analyzes the applicability of the Innovation Strategy Model on public sector organizations.

Misalignments in ERP Implementation: A Dialectical Perspective
Christina Soh, Siew Kien Sia, Wai Fong Boh, and May Tang

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are often not fully aligned with the implementing organization. It is important to understand their sources of misalignments since they can have significant implications for the organization. From a dialectic perspective, such misalignments are the result of opposing forces that arise from structures embedded in the ERP package and the organization. An intensive case study was conducted in one organization that has experienced significant misalignments with its ERP implementation. A typology of the misalignments and four pairs of dialectic forces were identified. Articulating deeper structural level misalignments enables organizations to examine their assumptions about the “permanent” characteristics of the organization and helps surface misalignments early to aid planning for resolution strategies.

The Decision-Support Characteristics of ERP Systems
Clyde W. Holsapple and Mark P. Sena

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have been widely adopted in large organizations. These systems store critical knowledge used to make the decisions that drive an organization’s performance. However, ERP systems are known primarily for their transactional rather than their decision-support characteristics. This study examines the extent to which adopters of ERP systems perceive characteristics typically associated with decision support systems. It also examines the importance that adopters place on such characteristics. The major findings are that ERP adopters perceive substantial levels of decision support characteristics in their ERP systems and that they consider such characteristics to be important. The study also examines differences in decision-support perceptions among demographic groups. By delineating the current state of ERP systems as they pertain to decision support, the results establish areas that vendors and adopters can focus on to improve the level of decision support provided by their ERP systems.

Journal of Electronic Commerce Research
Special Issue: Human Factors in Web-based Interaction
Volume 3, Number 3, 2002 ISSN 15266133

ISSUE EDITOR(S)

Issue Editor: Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Papers in the Special Issue

HCI Research Issues in Electronic Commerce

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska – Lincoln 
Sid Davis, University of Nebraska – Omaha

This article outlines a number of important research issues in human-computer interaction in the e-commerce environment. It highlights some of the challenges faced by users in browsing Web sites and conducting searches for information, and suggests several areas of research for promoting ease of navigation and search. Also, it discusses the importance of trust in the online environment, describing some of the antecedents and consequents of trust, and provides guidelines for integrating trust into Web site design. The issues discussed in this article are presented under three broad categories of human-computer interaction – Web usability, interface design, and trust – and are intended to highlight what we believe are worthwhile areas for future research in e-commerce.

An Integrative Approach to the Assessment of E-Commerce Quality

Stuart J. Barnes, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand 
Richard T. Vidgen, University of Bath, UK

WebQual is a method for assessing the quality of Web sites. The method has been developed iteratively through application in various domains, including Internet bookstores and Internet auction sites. In this paper we report on the application of a new version of WebQual to Internet bookstores: Amazon, BOL, and the Internet Bookshop. WebQual draws on previous work in three areas: Web site usability, information quality, and service interaction quality to provide a rounded framework for assessing e-commerce offerings. Although WebQual is grounded in the subjective impressions of Web site users, the data collected lends itself to quantitative analysis and the production of e-commerce metrics such as the WebQual Index. The reliability of the instrument is examined and core constructs of Web site quality identified using factor analysis. The role of WebQual in assessing an organization’s e-commerce capability is discussed.

From Design Features to Financial Performance: A Comprehensive Model of Design Principles for Online Stock Trading Sites

YoungSu Lee, Yonsei University, Korea 
Jinwoo Kim, Yonsei University, Korea

As e-business grows rapidly, interests in design principles for e-business web sites are increasing. A few studies have suggested design principles with concrete design features, but failed to link the features to the performance of an e-business site, such as attitudes of its customers or financial performance of the e-business company. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework that covers from concrete design features to financial performance for online stock trading, which is one of the most important domains of e-business. The proposed model for online stock trading sites consists of three design principles: functional convenience, representational delight, and structural firmness. Through empirical studies, this research found that the convenience, delight and firmness principles were closely related to the level of customer satisfaction, and, consequently, to the level of customer loyalty to the sites. We also identified important design features such as presentation of stock quotes in the homepage for each of the three design principles. Finally, the study results showed that customer loyalty would affect the financial performance of online stock trading companies. This paper concludes with the implications and limitations of the results.

Why Users Choose Particular Web Sites Over Others: Introducing a “Means-End” Approach to Human-Computer Interaction

Deepak Prem Subramony, Indiana University – Bloomington

Gutman’s means-end theory, widely used in market research, identifies three levels of abstraction – attributes, consequences, and values – associated with the use of products, representing the process by which physical attributes of products gain personal meaning for users. The primary methodological manifestation of means-end theory is the laddering interview, which it has been claimed generates better insights than other qualitative or quantitative methods. This study asked: Can means-end theory, and its concomitant laddering methodology, be successfully applied in the context of human-computer interaction research, specifically to help understand the relationships between Web sites and their users? The study employed laddering interviews to elicit data concerning Web site attributes, their consequences, and user end-values. This data was duly processed and the results were subsequently appraised. Examination determined that means-end chains do indeed characterize the process by which the physical attributes of Web sites gain personal meaning for their users, thus proving the theory’s applicability.

The Self-Confrontation Interview: Towards an Enhanced Understanding of Human Factors in Web-based Interaction for Improved Website Usability

Sun Lim, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK

An in-depth understanding of human factors in web-based interaction requires a methodology which enables researchers to chart online actions, understand the cognitive processes guiding these actions and the mental dispositions governing them. In this regard, the self-confrontation interview is an extremely effective method. In this article, the self-confrontation interview method, its history, design and execution are explained. This method was utilized in a study on online shopping behavior. Selected findings from this study are presented and design principles which will enhance the usability of online store interfaces are proposed. These design principles are: (i) follow a sequential progression, (ii) mimic real-life scripts, (iii) provide visual indicators, (iv) place functionality above aesthetics and (v) avoid conditioning automatic actions. The article concludes with an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the self-confrontation interview method and its efficacy vis a vis other methods of studying web-based interaction.

User Preference for Product Information in Remote Purchase Environments

Nancy J. Lightner, University of South Carolina 
Caroline Eastman, University of South Carolina

While the appeal of shopping online is enormous, successful methods of attracting and keeping customers remain elusive. Product offerings, service, and price are important considerations in online shopping, and a useful and satisfying Web site is also a consideration for on-line success. This research investigates product presentation in remote purchase environments and whether to accommodate user preferences for information processing in that presentation. After simulating an on-line shopping experience, users were asked about their satisfaction with it. Results indicate that regardless of the individual information processing style, the sentential style Web site was preferred over the diagrammatic style of product presentation. However, a combination site including both pictures and text was preferred over the others. These results address a conflict between goals of fast download time and thorough product presentation. Pictures may represent confirmation of the verbal description and provides a holistic view of the product, which slightly increases satisfaction.

Usability for Mobile Commerce Across Multiple Form Factors

Susy S. Chan, DePaul University 
Xiaowen Fang, DePaul University 
Jack Brzezinski, DePaul University 
Yanzan Zhou, DePaul University 
Shuang Xu, DePaul University 
Jean Lam, DePaul University

Current research on usability for mobile commerce has focused on single platforms and very limited aspects of commerce activities. We conducted an exploratory study to examine usability problems and to identify potential research questions concerning wireless solutions for consumer e-commerce. By using cognitive walkthrough and heuristic evaluation methods, we evaluated the usability of ten wireless sites in three platforms: WAP-enabled mobile phones, Palm OS based wireless PDAs, and Pocket PCs running Windows CE operating systems. This article discusses our usability findings pertaining to user tasks, content presentation, search, navigation systems, and the design constraints imposed by form factors. It also provides design guidelines based on our study and examines research implications for wireless interface design.

Paper on HCI Research in the MIS Discipline

by Ping Zhang, Izak Benbasat, Jane Carey, Fred Davis, Dennis Galletta, and Diane Strong, 
Communications of the AIS, 2002, volume 9, article 20, pp. 334-355

Published Papers - Pre-ICIS Annual Workshop Papers

Pre-ICIS Annual Workshop Papers

  1. Attitude as a Measure of Acceptance: Monitoring IS Implementation in a Hospital Setting
    Bram Pynoo, Pieter Devolder, Tony Voet, Jan Vercruysse, Luc Adang, and Philippe Duyck

    The aim of this study was to assess whether Attitude Toward Technology (ATT) is a better measure of technology acceptance than Behavioral Intention (BI) in a mandatory medical setting. A questionnaire was taken in two hospitals, one university (Setting 1) and one private (Setting 2). The technology studied was PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). The questionnaire was taken on several occasions: preimplementation (T1, both Settings); three months postimplementation (T2, S2); and one year after the transition was completed (T3, S1; S2 is underway). Four models were assessed: (1a) original TAM with ATT, (1b) TAM with BI replacing ATT, (2a) UTAUT, and (2b) UTAUT with ATT replacing BI. Our preliminary results indicate that ATT is indeed a better measure for acceptance than BI. Variance explained in ATT ranged from .47 to .72, in BI from .12 to .45. BI was the best predictor of USE.

  2. Online Trust and Health Information Websites
    Cynthia L. Corritore, Susan Wiedenbeck, Beverly Kracher, and Robert P. Marble

    This study develops and tests a model of online trust of a health care website. The model showed a statistically strong fit to the data (N=176). Trust was significantly explained by perceptions of credibility, ease of use, and risk. Perceived ease of use was a direct predictor of trust and an indirect predictor through credibility. Credibility was both a direct predictor of trust and an indirect predictor through risk.

  3. Antecedents of the Intention to Disclose Personal Information on the Internet: A Review and Model Extension
    Horst Treiblmaier and Sandy Chong

    In order to reap the benefits which the Internet offers, users often have to provide personal information over the Web. Data types that are frequently required by online vendors include names, mailing and e-mail addresses, telephone numbers or credit card numbers. Previous research has identified several antecedents which influence users’ decisions on providing personal details over the Web. This paper adds to the existing research by scrutinizing the concept of personal information and positing an individual’s perceived risk of personal  information as an antecedent of information disclosure. The results of an empirical survey show that users differentiate between various types of personal data according to the risk of privacy intrusion. Perceived risk of personal information turns out to be a stronger predictor for the intention to provide personal information online than trust in the Internet or in the online vendor. 

  4. Creating Rapport and Intimate Interactions with Online Virtual Advisors
    Sameh Al-Natour, Izak Benbasat, and Ronald T. Cenfetelli

    Adopting the view that users perceive their interactions with technological artifacts as social and interpersonal, this paper offers a number of propositions regarding the expected effects of two relationship-level constructs, namely, rapport and intimacy, which have been shown to be influential antecedents to interpersonal relationship satisfaction and interaction quality. Both constructs are proposed to be salient beliefs within the context of users’ interactions with virtual advisors, subsequently, affecting users’ evaluations of these advisors. In addition to offering a conceptualization of these two constructs and their individual dimensions, we also offer a number of propositions in regards to how these two constructs can be influenced using a number of design characteristics that have been discussed in prior literature. 

  5. Understanding Highly Competent Information System Users
    Brenda Eschenbrenner and Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah

    Individuals differ in their abilities to use information systems (IS) effectively, with some achieving exceptional performance in IS use. Using the Repertory Grid Technique, this research identifies attributes of highly competent IS users that distinguish them from less competent users. Using the Grounded Theory approach, we identified categories and sub-categories of these attributes and used them to develop a conceptual framework to explain IS User Competency. The findings indicate that highly competent users differ from less competent users in their Personality Traits and Disposition Factors, General Cognitive Abilities, Social Skills and Tendencies, Experiential Learning Factors, Domain Knowledge of and Skills in IS, Job Experiences, Generation Factors, and Education. The results not only highlight attributes that can be fostered in other IS users to improve their performance with IS use but they also present research opportunities for IS training and potential hiring criteria for IS users in organizations. 

  6. Perceived Interactivity Leading to E-Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation of Web-Poll Design
    Dianne Cyr, Milena Head, and Alex Ivanov

    With the growth of e-commerce, novel applications of website interactivity are important to attract and retain online users. In this empirical study five levels of interactivity are examined using different web-poll  applications. A model is created to validate the relationship of perceived interactivity to efficiency, effectiveness, enjoyment, and trust of the website. Further, specific elements of interactivity including control and user connectedness are examined for their relationship to trust. In turn, efficiency, effectiveness, enjoyment and trust are tested for their impact on eloyalty. All relationships in the model are supported. In addition, qualitative comments from users regarding the various web-poll treatments were analyzed with subtle differences detected between treatments. The research advances knowledge on the consequences of perceived interactivity. It has additional merit in that the treatments employed and their outcomes will be of interest to web designers and online marketers for how to enhance interactive online web applications.

  7. The Role of Technology, Content, and Context for the Success of Social Media
    Helen S. Du and Christian Wagner

    Social media, a new form of electronic media for social engagement and interaction, are becoming important means of communication and valuable assets for both individuals and organizations. Used by millions of online consumers and many leading business practitioners, social media, however, has remained largely unexplored by business researchers. This study, therefore, seeks to broaden our understanding by investigating weblog success in achieving readership popularity. Drawing on the techno-social perspective of media and the cognitive psychology concepts of mindfulness and mindlessness, we conjecture that readership popularity of a social media site is associated with its technology-dependent, contentdependent and context-dependent characteristics. To validate the proposed research model, a set of very popular weblogs will be studied over a period of time. We will adopt a methodology which includes an objective evaluation of the sites and a survey of individual readers.

  8. Individual Determinants of Media Choice for Deception
    Gabriel Giordano and Christopher Furner

    Recent research has found that deceivers are extremely difficult to detect in computer-mediated work settings. However, it is unclear which individuals are likely to use computer systems for deception in these settings. This study looked at how 172 upper-level business students’ political skill, social skill, and tendency to use impression management was related to their deception media choice in a business scenario. We found that most individuals preferred e-mail and face-to-face media to the phone for deception. However, the individuals with high social skill, individuals with high political skill, and individuals with a tendency to use impression management predominately chose the phone and face-to-face methods for deception. These findings imply that organizations do need to be aware of deception in e-mail communications; however, they also need to be aware of deception in phone and face-to-face settings, since this deception will likely be coming from individuals that are skilled deceivers.

  9. Why People Tag? Motivations for Content Tagging
    Oded Nov and Chen Ye

    Tagging, or using keywords to annotate images, bookmarks, and blogs, is gaining much popularity. Since tagging is seen as an important change in the way images are organized and shared, we need to understand what drives this behavior. We draw on taxonomy of individual-level motivations for tagging, and research on the impact of social presence on tagging, and examine the drivers of tagging. We develop a scale of tagging motivations, which distinguishes between motivations stemming from three categories of intended audience: the taggers themselves, their family and friends, and the general public. Using multiple sources, including a survey and independent system data, we find that the levels of the Self and Public motivations, as well as social presence factor are positively associated with tagging level, and that the family & friends motivation is not associated significantly with tagging level. Implications of the research are discussed.

  10. Positive and Negative Affect in IT Evaluation: A Longitudinal Study
    Ping Zhang and Na (Lina) Li

    This study investigates the impacts of affective evaluations of IT on IT use decisions. We propose two object-based affective evaluation constructs: perception of an IT’s capability to induce positive affect (PC-PA) and perception of the IT’s capability to induce negative affect (PC-NA). A longitudinal study shows that PC-PA and PC-NA are distinct concepts that have different effects on commonly studied IT adoption factors, perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), and attitude toward using the IT (ATB). These effects hold true during both initial use and continued use. PC-PA influences PU, PEOU and ATB but becomes less important to PU over time, and PC-NA only influences PEOU but becomes more important to PEOU over time. The study also offers a specific instrument on measuring affective evaluations of IT and points out future research directions.

  11. Proposing the Interactivity-Stimulus-Attention Model (ISAM) to Explain and Predict the Enjoyment, Immersion, and Adoption of Purely Hedonic Systems
    Paul Benjamin Lowry, Nathan W. Twyman, James Gaskin, Bryan Hammer, Aaron R. Bailey, and Tom L. Roberts

    Traditional TAM research primarily focuses on utilitarian systems where extrinsic motivations chiefly explain and predict acceptance. We propose a theoretical model, ISAM, which explains the role of intrinsic motivations in building the user attention that leads to hedonic system acceptance. ISAM combines several theories with TAM to explain how interactivity acts as a stimulus in hedonic contexts—fostering curiosity, enjoyment, and the full immersion of cognitive resources. Two experiments involving over 700 participants validated ISAM as a useful model for explaining and predicting hedonic system acceptance. Immersion and PE are shown to be the primary predictors of behavioral intention to use hedonic systems. Unlike traditional utilitarian adoption research, PEOU does not directly impact BIU, and extrinsic motivations are virtually non-existent. The implications of this study extend beyond hedonic contexts, as users of utilitarian systems continue to demand more hedonic features and enjoyment is often more important than PEOU. 

  12. BioGauges: Toward More Objective Evaluation of Biometrically-Based Interfaces
    Adriane B. Randolph, Melody Moore Jackson, and Steven G. Mason

    In an effort to better understand and fully characterize human interaction with biometrically-based interfaces, the BioGauges method and toolset are presented. BioGauges provide a mechanism for determining the range, reliability, and granularity of control possible for a user operating a biometrically-based interface. We first demonstrate the method with a study of ten able-bodied people characterizing two different continuous biometrically-based interfaces with a thresholded task. Then, we further demonstrate the method by assessing the spatial granularity of two continuous biometrically-based interfaces for five people with varying stages of paralysis due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

  13. Evaluating the Antecedents of the Technology Acceptance Model in Saudi Arabia
    Chad Anderson, Geoffrey Hubona, and Said Al-Gahtani

    Antecedents of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) have been the focus of research on user intentions toward new technology in developed countries for years. Findings from these studies can potentially reveal new methods to improve employee acceptance and use of new systems. The present study investigates whether the antecedents of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use also apply in developing countries, specifically in Saudi Arabia. Findings indicate that the antecedents of TAM do, in fact, apply in Saudi Arabia, and therefore also have implications for businesses in developing countries to improve the user acceptance and use of new technologies.

  14. Measuring Interactivity: An Instrument Development and Initial Assessment of a Model of the Interactivity Construct
    Damon Campbell and Ryan Wright

    This research posits a new measurement instrument of the Interactivity construct. This operationalization is based on Steuer’s (1992) conceptualization. Steuer (1992) proposed a definition of Interactivity based on the three sub-factors of speed, range, and mapping. However, no articles found in a citation track of Steuer (1992) used these sub-factors in measuring the construct. In order to provide a foundation for further work in this area, measurement items were developed to model interactivity as a formative second-order factor as proposed by Steuer (1992). Two laboratory experiments are used for this purpose. Results from the first exploratory study are presented and identify measurement items for the three sub-factors identified by Steuer (1992). The second study is proposed to confirm the results of study one by statistically comparing the developed instrument to existing instruments, and testing relationships between interactivity and other constructs that have been previously proposed in IS research literature.

  15. Human-Computer Interaction and Neuroscience: Science or Science Fiction?
    René Riedl and Friedrich Roithmayr

    We present two neuroscience experiments that have major implications for HCI research: First, we discuss a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study by Sanfey et al. (2003) who investigated brain activities of players of the Ultimatum Game. It was found that participants had a stronger emotional reaction to unfair offers from humans than to the same offers from a computer. Second, we discuss a Positron Emission Topography (PET) study by Haier et al. (1992) who studied participants playing the computer game Tetris over a period of several weeks. It was found that learning may result in decreased use of extraneous or inefficient brain areas. Finally, we stress the importance of measuring theoretical constructs in HCI research (e.g. user satisfaction) by using neuroscience techniques. Since theoretical constructs are neither directly observable nor objectively measurable, we argue that recent achievements in neuroscience technology will allow for directly measuring feelings and thoughts (e.g. satisfaction) in the future.

  16. Personal Health Manager – Designing an Intermediary System Supporting Health Education and Exercise Programs
    Uta Knebel, Sebastian Esch, Jan Marco Leimeister, and Helmut Krcmar

    The Personal Health Manager (PHM) is an IT-based product-service system (combining face to face, automated and computer-mediated services, hardware, software) supporting health exercise programs in workplace health promotion. Major HCI design challenges are different target groups, unstructured tasks, various hardware and service components, and finding the limit between face to face and automated services –ranging from top quality human supervision to cheap, scalable automated services in hedonic systems. We present an iterative development and test design as well as first design ideas. Through this case we try to highlight that traditional MIS and HCI approaches ‘as is’ are hardly applicable for designing ITbased product-service systems and that new approaches are necessary.

  17. The Effects of Dispositional Resistance to Change on Perceived Ease of Use
    Oded Nov and Chen Ye

    The introduction of new information systems often involves user resistance due to the changes associated with adopting new technologies. Therefore, it is important to understand how individuals’ resistance to change influences their perceptions of new technologies. Personality traits are commonly used in the psychology literature to explain human beliefs and behavior across different domains, and recently see a growing interest in the IS literature as an explanatory tool in the domain of technology related behavior. Research in social psychology has found Resistance to Change (RTC) to be a fundamental personality trait that influences individuals’ beliefs and behavior in situations involving change. In the present study we explore the relationship between RTC and Perceived Ease of Use, using a survey of 170 users of a digital library system. The preliminary findings suggest that RTC is a significant determinant of perceived ease of use. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. The Effects of Identifiability, Trust, and Deception on Information Sharing Behaviors in an Anonymous System
    Robert Sainsbury and Anthony Vance

    Sharing sensitive information can help organizations better understand risks in the environment in which they operate. However, the lack of a trusted, anonymous method for collecting and distributing sensitive information, together with substantial risks associated with disclosing such information, has limited the extent of information sharing among organizations. This research examines the potential of Trusted Query Network (TQN), a methodology for anonymously distributing information among trusted parties. Specifically, this research examines users’ perceptions of trust towards the anonymity of the TQN system and the effect of identifiability on users’ tendency to be deceptive. A free simulation experiment is proposed to test a theoretical model that explains how trust, identifiability, and deception affect users’ information sharing behaviors in an anonymous system.

  19. Group Collaboration Patterns in Scientific Laboratories
    Jing Ma

    This study explores group collaborations in traditional hands-on labs and computer automated simulated and remote labs. The primary purpose is to discover group collaboration patterns based on four dimensions: group proximity, communication media, group coordination structure and time on task. A factorial experiment is designed to collect the data from more than 200 students. Cluster analysis is used to analyze the data. The results suggest that students have different patterns of collaboration, both between lab groups and between lab formats. There are three distinct patterns in remote labs, four patterns in simulated labs and two patterns in hands-on labs. These differences seem to be related to learning effectiveness. The key characteristics of these clusters need to be further investigated and evaluated. These findings, along with others yet to be analyzed, promise to be fruitful for understanding, analyzing, and managing virtual collaboration, remote education, and design of information systems.

  20. Collaborative Learning in Engineering Education: A Grounded Theory Analysis of a CSCL Application
    Michelle J. Boese, Hong Sheng, and Richard Hall

    This study examines how students collaborate on engineering problems and the effect of information technology on facilitating collaboration. Twenty-eight undergraduate engineering students were placed in small groups to discuss questions about mechanics of materials, either face-to-face or via a keyboard chat. Students were interviewed after completing the tasks, and the interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The resulting framework suggests that social goals as well as achievement goals are major motivations for students’ behavior in the team situation, and that technology and group characteristics were acknowledged to influence their actions during and after the cooperation.

  21. 007 To The Rescue – Cognitive Fit of Operations Research and Agent-Based Decision Support
    Elfriede I. Krauth, Jos van Hillegersberg, and Steef L. van de Velde

    Adoption rates of traditional Operations Research (OR) based decision support systems (DSS) suffer from perceived complexity of the underlying model and its detrimental effect on user-friendliness. The mental effort required to understand abstract models can hinder adoption. This barrier may seem even greater to people with low analytic capabilities. Unfortunately it is often this user group that could benefit the most from using OR based DSS. Agent based approaches on the other hand typically model negotiations between real-world counterparts. Extending cognitive fit theory we argue that presenting DSS in an agent based fashion allows for a closer match between the model presented on screen and the mental model of the user. We tested the impact of DSS presentation on perceived usefulness in a lab experiment (n=118). Our data suggests that an agent presentation outperforms an OR based DSS for perceived usefulness for low analytic users.

 

  1. Examining the Role of the Communication Channel Interface and Recipient Characteristics on Knowledge Internalization
    Christopher L. Scott and Saonee Sarker

    Recent reviews of the HCI literature acknowledge that the effect of the IT interface on individual learning has received limited attention in the past, and should be the focus of future research. At the same time, a review of the knowledge transfer literature also suggests a limited examination of the factors affecting the latter phase of transfer (i.e., knowledge internalization and recipient learning). The current manuscript attempts to bridge the HCI and knowledge transfer literatures by empirically examining the effect of the communication channel interface and the recipient’s characteristics on the recipient’s knowledge internalization.

  2. Slacking and the Internet in the Classroom: A Preliminary Investigation
    Pamela S. Galluch and Jason Bennett Thatcher

    The paper investigates “slacking with Internet technologies” in a classroom environment. Rooted in the literature on social loafing, we develop a model linking attributes of the context, the individual, and technology to “intention to cyber-slack” and its influence on the effective use of Internet technology. Using data collected from 128 student respondents, we empirically test our model using the Partial Least Squares approach to structural equation modeling. Our analysis found support for many of the relationships in the theoretical model. Specifically, we found that personal innovativeness with IT and multi-tasking with Internet applications contribute to cognitive absorption, while cognitive absorption and subjective norms contributed to the intention to cyber-slack. Further, we found that intention to cyber-slack accounted for a large amount of the variance in effective use of Internet technologies. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research and practice.

  3. A Pattern Approach to Understand Group Collaboration in Hands-on and Remote Laboratories
    Jing Ma and Jeffrey V. Nickerson

    We identify patterns of group collaboration within hands-on and remote laboratories. The pattern of group collaboration includes three elements: the collaboration mode, the communication medium, and the collaboration structure. In addition, we examine how patterns of group collaboration evolved during different phases of the labs. Based upon observation of 22 engineering students, we found two common patterns of the collaboration mode, in both hands-on labs and remote labs: in one case, students seem to minimize cognitive effort, and in the other, they continue to do what they have been doing before. We also described the different types of communication media and collaboration structure in the two labs. Face-to-face meetings were found to be the dominant method of group communication in both labs, but students adopted a wider variety of communication methods when working with remote labs, and they interacted more with each other when they ran remote labs. 

  4. Dissecting Query Performance in Logical Data Models: Parsimony vs Greater Ontological Clarity
    Ghalib Al Ma’mri, Paul L. Bowen, Fiona H. Rohde, and Laurel Yang

    Even when data repositories exhibit near perfect data quality, users may formulate queries that do not correspond to the information requested. User’s poor information retrieval performance may arise from either problems understanding of the data models that represent the real world systems, or their query skills. This research focuses on users’ understanding of the data structures, i.e., their ability to map the information request and the data model. The Bunge-Wand-Weber ontology was used to formulate three sets of hypotheses. Two laboratory experiments (one using a small data model and using a larger data model) tested the effect of ontological clarity on users’ performance when undertaking component, record, and aggregate level tasks. The results indicate for the hypotheses associated with different representations but equivalent semantics that parsimonious data model participants performed better for component level tasks but that ontologically clearer data model participants performed better for record and aggregate level tasks. 

  5. Evaluating the Use of a Visual Approach to Business Stakeholder Analysis
    Wingyan Chung

    As businesses increasingly use the Web to share information with stakeholders, the problems arising from information overload and interconnected nature of the Web make it difficult to obtain business intelligence (BI). This research proposes a visual approach to business stakeholder analysis that integrates information visualization and Web mining techniques with human domain knowledge. A proof-of-concept prototype was developed based on the approach to assist in analyzing and visualizing complicated stakeholder networks on the Web. We report results of an empirical evaluation comparing the prototype with a traditional method of BI analysis and discuss the implications on HCI research and BI systems development. 

  6. Marshalling Support: How Computer Users Negotiate Technical Problems
    Hannah Rasmussen, Nicole Haggerty, and Deborah Compeau

    This research-in-progress examines how individuals marshal support resources to help solve technical problems during everyday use and what consequences they experience. In a naturalized setting we seek to understand the experience of ‘computer problems’ and their consequences for how users feel and what they know about technology. We have gathered 2 weeks of daily diary data from 305 participants in one organization regarding their experiences of technical problems. We present our preliminary analysis based on a sub-sample of 45 participants for illustration with full analysis expected for the workshop. We seek to make 3 contributions: 1) offer design insight to the HCI community with respect to user technical problem solving in everyday situations; 2) contribute to the post-adoption literature by describing everyday use, and problems impacts on users; 3) provide recommendations for the crucial function of support around the design and delivery of support to maximize user outcomes. 

  7. The Use of the Delphi Method to Determine the Benefits of the Personas Method – An Approach to Systems Design
    Tomasz Miaskiewicz and Kenneth Kozar

    A persona represents a group of target users that share common behavioral characteristics. The personas method, an approach to systems design, has been receiving significant attention from practitioners. However, only anecdotal evidence currently exists for the effectiveness of personas. This research-in-progress, a Delphi study of personas experts, attempts to reach consensus on the benefits of incorporating personas into design projects. This study also lays the foundation for future research by identifying variables of interest, and building construct validity through the definitions of items given by the experts. Experimental studies will validate if groups of subjects that are provided with personas design more usable systems that groups that are given data on the target users in a non-persona form. Also, planned case studies will concentrate on studying the use of and effectiveness of personas in the organizational setting.

  8. Exploring Human Images in Website Design Across Cultures: A Multi-Method Approach
    Dianne Cyr, Milena Head, Hector Larios, and Bing Pan

    To gain insight into how Internet users perceive human images, a controlled experiment was conducted using a survey, interviews, and an eye-tracking device. Three experimental conditions of human images were created including (1) human images with facial features; (2) human images but with no facial features; and (3) no human images. It was expected that human images with facial features would induce a user to perceive the website as more appealing, having warmth or social presence, and as more trustworthy. In turn, image appeal and perceived social presence were predicted to result in trust. All expected relationships in the model were supported except no direct relationship was found between the human image conditions and trust. Another goal of the research was to examine user reactions by cultural group, and differing reactions were observed between Canadian, German, and Japanese related to perceptions of use of human images in website design.

  9. Shaping Consumer Perceptions to Motivate Online Shopping: A Prospect Theory Perspective
    Daniel Chen and Huigang Liang

    Drawing upon prospect theory, we propose that the framings of a message describing the benefits of online shopping will have different impacts on consumers’ attitude toward and intention of online shopping. Particularly, a negatively framed message emphasizing the costs of losing the benefits is likely to be interpreted by an individual as loss and a positively framed message emphasizing the benefits of online shopping is likely to be interpreted as a gain. According to prospect theory, the negatively framed message is more likely to increase one’s intention to shop online than the positively framed message. We also propose that such framing effect is moderated by purchase involvement. This research-in-progress paper presents the rationale behind these propositions, experimental designs to test these propositions, and the expected contributions. We contend that the findings will enhance our understanding about consumers’ online shopping and provide prescriptive knowledge regarding how to change their behavior.

  10. Adaptive IT Use: Conceptualization and Measurement
    Heshan Sun and Ping Zhang

    IT use is an important concept both in research and in practice. Yet, IT use has been simply defined and measured in IS research. Presently, used measurements do not reflect the dynamics of users’ IT use behavior, which are important and account for job performance. This research aims at conceptualizing a new construct to capture the changes in IT use and developing an instrument for it. From an adaptive structuration perspective, we propose a new construct named Adaptive IT Use (AITU) to capture use changes in both IT feature set (size, content, and network), and the spirit of IT features. We further propose six dimensions of AITU and corresponding measuring items. After interviews and card-sorting experiments, an instrument of AITU is developed. 

  11. An Empirical Study of Consumer Satisfaction with Online Health Information Retrieval
    Michael Bliemel and Khaled Hassanein

    This research examines the area of Online Consumer Health Information Retrieval (HIR) as: “a field of study that pertains to consumers’ use of the Internet to locate and evaluate health related information, for the purposes of self education and collection of facts to enable informed decision making.” A research model exploring the antecedents of consumer satisfaction with online HIR is developed by using the constructs quality, trust beliefs and satisfaction. This model for consumer satisfaction with online HIR is quantitatively validated using structural equation modeling techniques. The findings of this research provide evidence that content quality, technical adequacy and trust beliefs explain a large proportion of the variance in satisfaction with online HIR for consumers. 

  12. Reducing the Perceived Deception of Product Recommendation Agents: The Impact of Perceived Verifiability and Perceived Similarity
    Bo Xiao and Chee-Wee Tan

    Product Recommendation Agents (PRAs) are software applications that augment consumers’ purchasing decisions by offering product recommendations based on elicited customers’ preferences. The underlying premise of PRAs is often grounded on the assumption that PRAs seek to optimize consumers’ utility by tailoring product recommendations to meet requisite expectations. Because the majority of commercial PRAs are implemented by parties with partisan interests in product sales, it is highly probable that recommendations are biased in favor of their providers and do not accurately reflect consumers’ interests. This in turn may possibly induce perceptions of deception among consumers. This study theorizes that the incorporation of IT-mediated components in PRAs, which induce high levels of perceived verifiability and perceived similarity, could mitigate consumers’ perceptions of deception towards product recommendations.

  13. An Experimental Study on U-Commerce Adoption: Impact on Personalization and Privacy Concerns
    Hong Sheng, Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, and Keng Siau

    U-commerce represents “anytime, anywhere” commerce. U-commerce can provide a high level of personalization, which can bring significant benefits to consumers. However, consumers’ privacy is a major concern and obstacle to the adoption of u-commerce. As customers’ intention to adopt u-commerce is based on the aggregate effect of perceived benefits and risk exposure (e.g., privacy concerns), this research examines how personalization and context can impact customers’ perceived benefits and privacy concerns, and how this aggregated effect in turn affects u-commerce adoption intention.

  1. Website Design and Mobility: Culture, Gender, and Age Comparisons
    Dianne Cyr, Milena Head, and Alex Ivanov

    Anytime/anywhere services offered through mobile commerce hold great potential to serve customers in wireless environments. However, there is limited understanding of how to best tailor mobile interaction and design for individual differences. This paper seeks to explore the influence of individual differences (namely culture, gender and age) on the design (namely information design, navigation design and visual design) and satisfaction of mobile devices. Sixty subjects who differ on cultural, gender and age dimensions were tested in a controlled laboratory experiment on a mobile product, an Internet enabled phone. The results of this exploratory analysis were inconclusive in terms of cultural and gender differences, but significant differences were found between older and younger subject groups. Consistent with findings in the stationary Internet domain, design elements were found to impact satisfaction with mobile services. Implications and limitations of this research are presented, emphasizing the importance of additional investigations.

  2. The Cultural Implications of Nomadic Computing in Organizations
    Lei-da Chen and Cynthia L. Corritore

    The model of an anytime anywhere workforce changing the landscape of business today is made possible by nomadic computing technologies, eg. mobile and wireless technologies. This research presents the concept of nomadic culture and examines a framework that describes the components of this new, emerging culture underlying anytime anywhere work. The effect of organizational support for nomadic behaviors, a part of nomadic culture, on job satisfaction is also examined. Using the structure equation modeling technique, significant support for the framework was found in data collected from 203 working IT professionals from a wide variety of organizations.

  3. Investigating the Usability of the Stylus Pen on Handheld Devices
    Xiangshi Ren and Sachi Mizobuchi

    Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available on the market, however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for hand-held device interfaces. Two experiments were conducted to determine the most suitable dimensions (pen-length, pen-tip width and pen-width) for a stylus pen. In Experiment 1, five pen-lengths (7, 9, 11, 13, 15 cm) were evaluated. In Experiment 2, six combinations of three pen-tip widths (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mm) and the two pen widths (4 and 7mm) were compared. In both experiments, subjects conducted pointing, steering and writing tasks on a PDA. The results were assessed in terms of user performance and subjective evaluations for all three pointing, steering and writing tasks. We determined that the most suitable pen dimensions were 11 cm for length, 0.5 mm for tip width, and 7mm for pen width. 

  4. Measuring User Beliefs and Attitudes towards Conceptual Schemas: Tentative Factor and Structural Equation Model
    Geert Poels, Ann Maes, Frederik Gailly, and Roland Paemeleire

    Human factors research in conceptual modeling is scarce. Recently, quality assurance frameworks, methods and tools for conceptual schemas have received increased research attention, but the perception of quality by schema users has largely been ignored in this stream of research. This paper proposes a tentative model of user beliefs and attitudes towards the quality of conceptual schemas. The proposed model is original in the sense that it includes both perceived semantic quality and perceived pragmatic quality measures. The paper also presents a new measurement instrument for the perceived semantic quality of conceptual schemas. This instrument was used in a classroom experiment that tested the proposed user beliefs and attitudes model. It was shown that the perceived semantic quality of a schema is directly related to its perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use and indirectly to the user satisfaction with the schema. 

  5. The Centrality of Awareness in the Formation of User Behavioral Intention toward Preventive Technologies in the Context of Voluntary Use
    Tamara Dinev and Qing Hu

    Little is known about user behavior toward what we call preventive computer technologies that have become increasingly important in the networked economy and society to secure data and systems from viruses, unauthorized access, disruptions, spyware, and similar harmful technologies. We present the results of a study of user behavior toward preventive technologies based on the frameworks of theory of planned behavior in the context of anti-spyware technologies. We find that the user awareness of the issues and threats from harmful technologies is a strong predictor of user behavioral intention toward the use of preventive technologies. In the presence of awareness, the influence of subjective norm on individual behavioral intention is significantly weakened among less technology savvy users but strengthened among more technology savvy users. Also, commonly strong determinants “perceived ease of use” and “computer self-efficacy” in utilitarian technologies are no longer as significant in preventive technologies. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. 

  6. Evaluating Supply Chain Context-Specific Antecedents of Post-Adoption Technology Performance
    Susan K. Lippert

    This study investigated the influence of context-specific antecedents to user perceptions of technology performance using a new logistics information tracking technology designed to facilitate the linking of supply functions. Supply chain awareness, task-technology fit, and satisfaction with the existing system were evaluated as external variables likely to influence technology performance. This research examines the effect of these three constructs on technology acceptance as a function of post-adoption perceptions of technology performance. The research model was based on the original Technology Acceptance Model. Data from a mail survey were collected to evaluate 718 first-tier supply chain users’ perceptions of a new technology’s performance that includes accuracy, visibility, and efficiency. A structural equation model tested eleven hypothesized relationships. The results of this study advance understanding of technology adoption, enrich knowledge of technology innovation, and offer suggestions for enhancing user perceptions of technology performance. Implications along with suggestions for future research are provided. 

  7. The Role of Similarity in e-Commerce Interactions: The Case of Online Shopping Assistants
    Sameh Al-Natour, Izak Benbasat, and Ronald T. Cenfetelli

    This research proposes that technological artifacts are perceived as social actors, and that users can make personality and behavioral attributions towards them. These formed perceptions interact with the user’s own characteristics in the form of an evaluation of similarity. Using an automated shopping assistant, the study investigates the effects of two types of perceived similarity on a number of dependent variables. The results show that both, perceived personality similarity, as well as perceived behavioral similarity, between the user and the decision aid positively affect users’ evaluations of the technological artifact. Furthermore, the study investigates the role of design characteristics in forming social perceptions about the shopping assistant. The results indicate that design characteristics, namely content, can be used to manifest desired personalities and behaviors, allowing us to compute measures of “actual” similarity, which were found to predict perceived similarity.

  8. It is that Dreaded Error Report: An Empirical Assessment of Error Reporting Behavior
    Khawaja Saeed and Achita (Mi) Muthitacharoen

    Software companies are currently using the Internet to solicit information from users about errors in the applications and using this information to prioritize further development efforts. To increase the likelihood of error reporting by users, it is important to systematically understand user perceptions that drive their intention to use an error reporting system (ERS). We theorize that perceived expected benefits of using ERS, the user’s value system, and design elements of the ERS are factors that drive ERS usage intentions. The results show that the users find ERS useful, if they believe that ERS is congruent with their values and will benefit them in future. While clarity of role and process transparency were identified as important factors, the ability to examine information transmitted through the ERS was not found to influence ERS usefulness. Prescriptive guidelines on effective design of the ERS and discussion on avenues of future research are offered.

  9. Building Relationships Between Consumers and Online Vendors: Empirical Findings from Austria
    Horst Treiblmaier

    Customer Relationship Management has become one of the major topics in Information Systems. While IS researchers concentrate on the influence of computer-supported systems to strengthen the ties between customers and organizations, the underlying theoretical base has mainly been built and developed by the marketing discipline named relationship marketing. Interestingly, the central definition of what exactly constitutes a relationship remains unclear in both research fields. This paper takes an interdisciplinary approach and shows how relationships are defined in scholarly literature. Since the results remain unsatisfying, an empirical survey is conducted to let online consumers define what they perceive to be the crucial attributes of a relationship in general and with an (online) organization. The results indicate that the notion of relationship has to be redefined at least for online communication and interaction and offer practical implications for designing the interaction process with online users.

  10. Online Advice Taking: Examining the Effects of Self-Efficacy, Computerized Sources, and Perceived Credibility
    Robin S. Poston, Asli Y. Akbulut, and Clayton A. Looney

    The Internet offers limitless advice on a multitude of products and services. The quality of the advice varies and is inherently a matter of human judgment. To help users determine the quality of advice and whether to use the advice, design features of web sites include information about the type and credibility of the advice source. This research examines how characteristics of the online user (i.e., self-efficacy) and characteristics of the advice source (i.e., type and credibility) affect advice taking in an online investing context. A laboratory experiment provides evidence that users with higher levels of self-efficacy are less likely to take advice than those with lower levels of self-efficacy. Results also suggest users given highly credible advice are more likely to take the advice compared to users who receive advice with dubious credibility. The implications are discussed. 

  11. An Empirical Study on Causal Relationships between Perceived Enjoyment and Perceived Ease of Use
    Heshan Sun and Ping Zhang

    Causality is critical for our understanding of user technology acceptance. However, findings regarding the causal relationship between perceived enjoyment (PE) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) are not conclusive. PE has been theorized and empirically validated as either an antecedent or a consequence of PEOU. Covariance-based methods such as the widely used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), albeit robust in examining causal connectedness, are limited in detecting causal direction and therefore cannot provide additional evidence for one view or the other. This study provides an alternative statistical method, Cohen’s path analysis to explore causal relationship. Empirical results from two studies support that the PE→PEOU causal direction is stronger than the PEOU→PE direction for utilitarian systems. 

  12. Information Search Patterns in E-Commerce Product Comparison Services
    Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, Hong-Hee Lee, and Liqiang Chen

    The presentation of product information is very important in e-commerce websites. In this research, we study how disposition styles can influence users’ search patterns in product comparison services of e-commerce websites. Our results show that people are inclined to use feature information paths in vertical disposition style and product information paths in horizontal disposition style. The results also indicate that there are more feature paths than product paths in the earlier stage of product comparison, and more product paths than feature paths in the latter stage of product comparison. Based on Gensch’s two-stage choice model and the results of our study, the vertical disposition style is more suited for supporting product comparison services.

  13. Understanding the Social Implications of Technological Multitasking: A Conceptual Model
    Caroline S. Bell, Deborah R. Compeau, and Fernando Olivera

    Multitasking is common in today’s technology-enabled organizations. However, little attention has been paid to the social meaning and consequences of multitasking. We focus on technological multitasking – which we define as rapid task switching involving information technologies – in situations involving co-location and interpersonal interaction, such as checking e-mail during a meeting or instant messaging during group work. We argue that technological multitasking generates social perceptions and present a conceptual model linking these perceptions to situational factors and performance. 

  14. Contributing to Quality of Life: A New Outcome Variable for Information Technology in Ubiquitous Computing Environments
    Minkyung Lee, Jinwoo Kim, Hun Choi, Dongjin Lee, and Kun Shin Im

    The rapid spread of technological innovations like mobile data services (MDS) has made ubiquitous computing a fact of everyday life for many people. We need therefore to understand the contribution of ubiquitous computing to overall quality of life. This study proposes a theoretical model that connects user satisfaction (a traditional outcome variable of IT) with contributions to quality of life (a new outcome variable for ubiquitous computing) in the domain of MDS. The reliability of the outcome variables and the validity of the proposed model were tested through three empirical studies in Korea. Study results indicate that user satisfaction with MDS affected the contribution of MDS to quality of life in eleven subordinate domains, and these contributions in turn influenced the overall contribution of MDS to quality of life. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications and limitations of the study results.

  1. Categorized Graphical Overviews for Web Search Results: An Exploratory Study using U.S. Government Agencies as a Meaningful and Stable Structure
    Bill Kules and Ben Shneiderman

    Search engines are very effective at generating long lists of results that are highly relevant to user-provided query terms. But the lack of effective overviews presents challenges to users who seek to understand these results, especially for a complex task such as learning about a topic area, which requires gaining overviews of and exploring large sets of search results, identifying unusual documents, and understanding their context. Categorizing the results into comprehensible visual displays using meaningful and stable classifications can support user exploration and understanding of large sets of search results. This extended abstract presents a set of principles that we are developing for search result visualization. It also describes an exploratory study that investigated categorized overviews of search results for complex search tasks within the domain of U. S. government web sites, using a hierarchy based on the federal government organization. 

  2. An Empirical Study of the Roles of Affective Variables in User Adoption of Search Engines
    Heshan Sun and Ping Zhang

    The current study is built upon prior research and is an attempt to explore the roles of affective variables in user technology adoption. Two different affective variables, computer playfulness and perceived enjoyment, were examined and their relationships with each other and with cognitive and behavioral variables were hypothesized. An empirical study using survey method was conducted. Analyses with the PLS technique confirmed most of the hypotheses. Our findings suggest that perceived enjoyment has a significant impact on perceived ease of use, but no direct effect on behavioral intention. Perceived enjoyment mediates the impact of computer playfulness on PEOU, which has not been studied before. 

  3. Learning, Performance, and Analysis Support for Complex Software Applications
    Steven R. Haynes and Thomas George Kannampallil

    We propose a three-part framework describing support tools for users of complex software applications such as enterprise resource planning and decision support systems. The model is motivated by the objectives of learning, performance, and analysis and is grounded in the theories of constructivism, pragmatism, and reflection respectively. This mapping is supported both by results of prior research and by a case study formative evaluation of a complex, cognitive support system developed for antiterrorism resource allocation. The work contributes to the field of system usability by providing an integrative framework linking established theoretical positions with empirical research on human-computer interaction. 

  4. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Two Web Site Usability Instruments
    David T. Green and J. Michael Pearson

    Many perspectives of user acceptance of Web sites have been examined, yet information systems research often overlooks the human-computer interaction aspects, particularly in the area of Web site usability. Web site usability has recently gained greater acceptance in information literature through the development of instruments by Palmer (2002) and Agarwal and Venkatesh (2002). This study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of both instruments in an attempt to validate the two instruments. Our results found that the Palmer instrument exhibited satisfactory measurement properties, although allowing room for further refinement. The Agarwal and Venkatesh instrument, although useful as a practical metric, displayed poor validity for the underlying constructs that compose Web site usability. Validation of these instruments furthers their scope and potential use by researchers and practitioners in helping them better understand the capabilities of their Web sites, while providing a foundation for further refinement of the Web site usability construct. 

  5. Using Ratings and Response Latencies to Evaluate the Consistency of Immediate Aesthetic Perceptions of Web Pages
    Noam Tractinsky, Avivit Cokhavi, and Moti Kirschenbaum

    Using explicit (subjective evaluations) and implicit (response latency) measures, this study replicated and extended the findings by Fernandes et al (2003), who found that immediate aesthetic impressions of web pages are remarkably consistent. Forty participants evaluated 50 web pages in two phases. The degree to which web pages were regarded, on average, as attractive after a very short exposure of 0.5 sec. was highly correlated with attractiveness ratings after an exposure of 10 seconds. Extreme attractiveness evaluations (both positive and negative) were faster than moderate evaluations, providing convergent evidence to the hypothesis of immediate impression. Overall, the results provide direct evidence in support of the premise that aesthetic impression of the IT artifacts are formed quickly. Indirectly, the results suggest that visual aesthetics can play an important role in users’ evaluations of the IT artifact. 

  6. A Methodology for Business Value-Driven Website Evaluation: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach
    Jungpil Hahn and Robert J. Kauffman

    Managers at e-commerce firms are in need of proven methods for ongoing website evaluation. However, current approaches to website evaluation are not perfectly suited to the task at hand. This paper proposes a new business value-driven approach to website evaluation, which is theoretically grounded in the economic theory of production. We view online shopping as an economic production process in which customers are using various functionalities of an e-commerce website in order to complete a purchase transaction. This view enables us to formulate a novel perspective on website performance – the ability to transform inputs (i.e., use of website functionalities) into outputs (i.e., completed purchase transactions). We propose two DEA-based metrics, InefficiencyBreadth and UnitInefficiency that help identify website functionalities that are potentially ineffective. 

  7. A Study of the Effects of Online Advertising: A Focus on Pop-Up and In-Line Ads
    Scott McCoy, Dennis Galletta, Andrea Everard, and Peter Polak

    Pop-up, pop-under, and in-line ads have been said to be intrusive, and previous findings suggest that they could have important effects on user perception and cognition. Using a 2×2 factorial design, this experimental study examines the effects of those ads. Besides a control group without ads, factors included ad placement (pop-up vs inline) and ad congruence (with the site’s content or not). Results indicated that intention to return was impaired by ads; retention of website information was higher when ads were inline or when ads were not congruent with website content; and retention of ad content was higher for inline ads and those that were not congruent to the content of the website. However, contrary to expectations, intentions to return were not affected by ad placement, retention of site content was not affected by the existence of ads, and intrusiveness of ads was not affected by ad congruence. 

  8. Designing Tailorable Technologies
    Matt Germonprez and Fred Collopy

    Tailorable technologies are technologies that are modified by users in the context of their use and are around us as desktop operating systems, web portals, and mobile telephones. While tailorable technologies provide users with limitless ways to modify the technology, as designers and researchers we have little understanding of how this should affect design. In this paper we present principles from four designers to strengthen inquiry into tailorable technologies. We then apply the principles to the case of the design of a web portal. We conclude that designers need to more consciously build reflective and active design environments and gradients of interactive capabilities in order for technology to be readily modified in the context of its use. 

  9. Instilling Social Presence through the Web Interface
    Khaled Hassanein and Milena Head

    Electronic commerce is more impersonal, anonymous and automated than traditional person-to-person commerce, and as such, typically lacks human warmth and sociability. This paper explores how human warmth and sociability can be integrated through the Web interface to positively impact consumer attitudes towards online shopping. An empirical study was undertaken to investigate the impact of various levels of socially-rich text and picture design elements on the perception of online social presence and its subsequent effect on antecedents of Website attitude. Higher levels of social presence are shown to positively impact the perceived usefulness, trust and enjoyment of shopping Websites, leading to more favourable consumer attitudes. Implications of these finding for practitioners and future research are outlined. 

  10. The Value of Mobile Commerce to Customers
    Keng Siau, Hong Sheng, and Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah

    This research studies the values of m-commerce using a qualitative means-ends approach, called Value-Focused Thinking. The conceptual foundation for this research is the Work System Framework. By interviewing both current and potential m-commerce users, we captured the values of m-commerce and develop a means-ends objective network to illustrate the relationships among these values. As one of the first empirical research to assess the values of m-commerce, this research contributes to an increased understanding of mcommerce. The means-ends objective network also serves as a theoretical foundation for future research in mcommerce. For practitioners, our findings highlight the concerns and issues of customers, which are valuable for strategy formulation in m-commerce. 

  11. Motivations for Mobile Devices: Uses and Gratifications for M-Commerce
    Thomas F. Stafford and Mark L. Gillenson

    Uses and Gratifications is a media use paradigm useful for diagnosing user motivations for computer and technology usage. This study documents the exploratory processes of developing a mobile device uses and gratifications motivational inventory, beginning with qualitative inquiry and proceeding through exploratory analysis of motivational dimensions for usage. Results indicate that mobile device uses and gratifications are mainly centered on the speed and connectivity with which associated data and information services are available for busy technology users. 

  12. Exploring Customers’ Preferences for Online Games
    Seung Baek, Young-Suk Song, Jae Kyo Seo

    Online content providers who use the Internet to distribute content experience an extremely competitive business environment. To survive in this environment, they have started charging a fee for the content that they provide. However, there have been very few success stories in commercializing online content. Although one of few success stories is the online game, it still has customers’ psychological resistance against paying a high fee for playing games. To pay back their high R&D or development costs quickly, many online game producers have a tendency to assign high prices to their online games. Without examining customers’ perceived prices for online games, many online game producers have tended to decide prices from their perspectives. Although many online game-related research works have focused on psychological and technical aspects, very few works have examined online gamers’ preferences carefully. This study aims at exploring online gamers’ preference by measuring their WTP (Willingness To Pay) for online games. 

  13. Behavioral Factors Affecting Internet Abuse in the Workplace – An Empirical Investigation
    Irene M.Y. Woon and Loo Geok Pee

    Internet abuse in the workplace refers to employee’s use of Internet provided by the organization for non-workrelated purpose. It has not only resulted in productivity loss, bandwidth waste and legal liability, it also exposed organizations’ information systems to a host of new security threats. To gain a better understanding of the factors influencing Internet abuse behavior in the workplace, this study applied the Theory of Interpersonal Behavior proposed by Triandis and investigated the effects of job satisfaction, affect, social factors, perceived consequences, habit and facilitating conditions on Internet abuse intention and behavior. Results indicated that all factors are significant at 0.05 level. Affect, social factors and habit have the greatest influence on Internet abuse intention and behavior. An interesting result is that employees with higher level of job satisfaction have a more positive affect towards Internet abuse. Implications for Internet security management are discussed. 

  14. A Process Tracing Study on Trust Formation in Recommendation Agents
    Sherrie Xiao Komiak and Izak Benbasat

    This study utilizes a processing tracing method to explore the processes of trust formation in web-based productbrokering recommendation agents (RAs). We compare and contrast the processes of trust/distrust formation in an attribute-based RA (a typical content-based RA) versus a need-based RA (a content-based RA plus need-based questions). Concurrent verbal protocols from 49 subjects were collected, transcribed, and analyzed. Our protocol analysis results show that the need-based RA elicits significantly more trust formation processes and fewer distrust formation processes than the attribute-based RA does, which explains why the level of customer trust in the need-based RA is significantly higher than the level of customer trust in the attribute-based RA. Interestingly, our results show that, for both types of RAs, the top three processes of trust formations are different from the top three processes of distrust formations. Suggestions are given on how to design more trustworthy RAs. 

  15. Effects of Choice Contrast and Order Sequence on Consumer Judgment and Decision in Comparison-Shopping Assisted Environment
    Chuan-Hoo Tan, Yee-Pia Chan, Yee-Pia Chan, Hock-Chuan Chan, and Hock-Hai Teo

    Comparison-Shopping (CS) websites, such as mySimon.com, assist consumers in managing the vast amount of information offered by multiple retailers on the Internet. Conventional wisdom would have dictated that the provision of the best set of alternatives by CS websites should lead to high consumer satisfaction and purchase propensity. However, consumers may experience decision difficulty to choose among alternatives that are nondominated (i.e., none of the alternative is inferior for all product attributes). Consequently, they may simply avoid making a decision by not committing to any purchase. Grounded on behavioral and context-dependent decisionmaking literature, this paper builds a model that explores the effects of choice content and choice order sequence on consumer behavior and explains how they can potentially alleviate the difficulty of making purchase decisions. 

  16. Dual-Modal Presentation of Sequential Information
    Shuang Xu, Xiaowen Fang, Jacek Brzezinski, and Susy Chan

    Based on Baddeley’s (1986) working model and research on human attention, this study intends to design a visualauditory information presentation to: (1) minimize the interference in information processing between visual and auditory channels; and (2) improve the effectiveness of mental integration of information from different modalities. Baddeley suggests that imagery spatial information and verbal information can be concurrently held in different subsystems within human working memory. Accordingly, this research proposes a method to convert sequential textual information into its graphical and verbal representations and hypothesizes that this dualmodal presentation will result in superior comprehension performance and higher satisfaction as compared to pure textual display. Simple T-tests will be used to test the hypothesis. Results of this study will help to address usability problems associated with small-screen computers. Findings may also benefit interface design of generic computer systems by alleviating the overabundance of information output in the visual channel. 

  17. Spreadsheet Visualization Effects on Error Correction
    Hock Chuan Chan

    Spreadsheets have been used by organizations for decades. Errors in spreadsheets are commonly found in laboratory and field findings. In recent years, many exciting new visualization techniques have been developed to help users understand spreadsheet models and to check for errors. Two visualization tools were tested in an experiment for their effects on error correction. The first is a simple arrow tool which shows dependencies among cells. The second shows the inputprocess- output function of cells in addition to the dependency arrows. The experiment shows significantly better error detection with the arrow method than for the plain method (without visualization tools). Wrong data errors took more time to correct than missing data errors. 

  1. Gender and Personality in Media Rich Interfaces: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? 
    Traci J. Hess, Mark A. Fuller and John Mathew

    This research explores how user and interface characteristics can interact to influence decision performance. Specifically, this research examines the effects of gender, personality similarity, and increased levels of information cues on user involvement with a computer-based decision aid. In addition, this research explores the downstream effects of user involvement on decision time, effort, satisfaction, confidence, and quality. Findings indicate that gender has a significant influence on user involvement, and that involvement and the level of information cues provided by the decision aid have a direct influence on decision performance.

  2. A Test of the Theory of DSS Design for User Calibration: The Effects of Expressiveness and Visibility on User Calibration.
    Brian M. Ashford and George M. Kasper

    This paper reports a test of the theory of decision support systems design for user calibration that compares the efficiency of the visual computing paradigm with that of the conventional text paradigm over varied levels of problem novelty. Perfect user calibration exists when a user’s confidence in a decision equals the quality of the decision. The laboratory study reported here compared the effects on user calibration of problems depicted either using a text paradigm or visual computing paradigm. The results support the theory. When problems are new and novel, visual depiction improves user calibration. As problems became more familiar and problem novelty decreases, no difference was found in user calibration between subjects exposed to visibility diagrams and those exposed to a traditional text paradigm.

  3. When Information Technology Design Favors Form over Function: Where is the Value-added “Tipping Point”? 
    Rita M. Vick and Brent Auernheimer

    Performing usability analysis early in the design process results in lower overall development, deployment, and maintenance costs. Pre-development user and task analysis through questionnaires, observation, low-fidelity prototyping, and usability testing enables productive interactive testing of subsequent operable system prototypes. This helps assure a positive return on investment in information technology. When usercentered design assessment is supplanted by assumptions about user, task, and work environment, the result is often production of applications embellished with functionality unrelated to the user’s task. Surveys were administered to elicit user perception of system usability and usefulness and of satisfaction with intra-team interaction. This was the first step in determining the relationship between form and function for users of a Synchronous Distributed-Decision Support System (SD-DSS). It was anticipated that the teamwork process would be most troublesome while the SD-DSS would be perceived as easy to use and functional. The reverse proved to be the case.

  4. A Communication Goals Model of Online Persuasion.
    E. Vance Wilson and Ying Lu

    Online communication media are being used increasingly for attempts to persuade message receivers. This paper presents a theoretical model that predicts outcomes of online persuasion based on the structure of primary and secondary goals message receivers hold toward the communication.

  5. The “Voice Effect” in Groups.
    Tom L. Roberts and Paul Benjamin Lowry

    This study looks at how collaborative technology, proximity choices, and group size can affect voicing in groups. Results of the study, involving two experiments with 550 participants, show that collaborative technology can improve an individual’s desire to voice, instrumental motives to voice, non-instrumental motives to voice, and the opportunity to voice in face-to-face groups. The results also show that the use of collaborative technology can lesson individual voice losses as groups increase in size especially in distributed environments. These findings have important implications in group interactions using technology.

  6. An Empirical Investigation of Antecedents of Internet Abuse in the Workplace.
    Dennis F. Galletta and Peter Polak

    This study examined the extent to which employees engage in Internet abuse, and whether any of 15 antecedents predict the amount of that abuse. Data were collected from 571 Usenet users in an on-line survey. Aggregating the time for each of the eleven listed methods of Internet abuse revealed a total of 5.8 hours per week, on average. Most of the antecedents in two of the three Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) categories (Attitudes and Subjective Norms), were significant, and none of the antecedents in the third TPB category (Perceived Behavioral Control) showed significance. addiction, self-justification, job satisfaction, peer culture, and supervisor culture were significant predictors of Internet abuse. Exploratory demographic factors computer experience, gender, and firm revenue also showed predictive power.

  7. HCI Research Transfer to Practice: Better Together (Panel) 
    Mary Czerwinski, Izak Benbasat, Julie Ratner, Radhika Santhanam, Peter Todd

    Currently, HCI researchers and HCI practitioners work in relatively separate spheres of influence. Practitioners often question the value of academic HCI research and desire more practical directions. HCI researchers often wonder if their research findings are communicated via the optimal channels for influencing practitioners’ process and direction, or whether their results generalize to the real workaday world of HCI. This panel attempts to outline what practitioners need from their academic partners, and how they think these needs can be addressed by academic research. Academics on the panel will state what they see as interesting future research challenges, and whether or how they think they can address the practitioner community’s interests. The practitioners on the panel will then state their opinions about the opportunities for technology transfer from academia to practice.

  8. A Model Made of Paper: Clinicians Navigate the Electronic Health Record
    Catherine Arnott Smith

    The electronic health record (EHR) is actually an aggregation of individual clinical documents. Medical records document not only the knowledge domains of clinical practice, but the work processes and practices that support these domains. Human-computer interaction is an important factor in EHR system success: researchers have argued that clinician readers consciously perceive the context of production, and integrate an understanding of the producer into their understanding of the data. In support, this paper reports findings of an information retrieval study using a simulated EHR containing
    deidentified clinical documents. Physician subjects verbally demonstrated use of a mental model of the paper medical record during their navigation of the system. Clinicians may actively apply a mental representation of their domain of practice—and actively refer to this paperbased knowledge base—when they access medical data. An understanding of the mental models that clinicians use would greatly inform our understanding of EHR systems.

  9. Effect of Presentation Flaws on Users’ Perception of Quality of On-Line Stores’ Web Sites: Is it Perception that really Counts? 
    Andrea Everard and Dennis F. Galletta *

    Presentation flaws are abundant in web sites, but there has been no study to determine how presentation flaws affect consumers’ perceptions of quality of an on-line store, trust in the store, and  ultimately the intention to purchase. The theoretical foundation stems from various relevant streams of literature: trust and credibility, impression formation, and impression management. A laboratory
    experiment examined three main factors, incompleteness, error, and poor style, and used 160 student subjects in a completely balanced, fully factorial design (2x2x2). It was found that error, incompleteness, and poor style affected consumers’ perceived quality of the web site. Furthermore, it was found that the relationship between the factors and perceived quality was mediated by the
    perception of the flaws. The perception of flaws rather than the actual flaws influenced users’ perception of quality.

  10. Exploring Website Evaluation Criteria using the Repertory Grid Technique: A Web Designers’ Perspective.
    Felix B Tan and Lai Lai Tung

    This study aims to investigate web designers’ perceptions of an “effective” website. Twenty web designers were interviewed using Kelly’s Repertory Grid Technique in order to elicit factors that they consider important when designing or developing B2C websites. Using grounded theory approach, these elicited data were then classified into 14 meta-categories. The intensive nature of the interviews eventually gave rise to a comprehensive framework that broadens the base of existing web evaluation literature. This framework is based on an adapted Technology Acceptance Model with the 4 dimensions of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Playfulness and Attractiveness.

  11. Usability and Efficacy Reactions to Object-Orientation: The Impact of Prior Knowledge.
    Liping Liu

    In this paper, we examine how prior knowledge impacts usability and efficacy reactions to object-oriented techniques. We develop research hypotheses based on the multiconstraint theory of analogical reasoning. We empirically test the hypotheses in an open learning setting. We observed a significant interaction effect: the subjects with prior knowledge on either data or process modeling
    technique perceived greater difficulty and less confidence in learning object-oriented techniques than novices as well as those who have prior knowledge on both structured techniques. Prior knowledge explained 19% of the variance in both usability and efficacy reactions and, as a common cause, partially explained their correlation.

  12. Evaluation of the Impacts of Data Model and Query Language on Query Performance.
    Hock Chuan Chan and Lian Xiang

    It is important to understand how users can utilize database systems more effectively to enhance performance. A major research interest is to evaluate and compare user performance across different data models and query languages. So far, experiments have tested combinations of model plus language. An interesting theoretical and practical question is: how much of the performance difference is caused by the data model itself, and how much by the additional query language syntax? A cognitive model of query processing suggests measurement at two stages. The data model has impact at the first stage, and the model with the query language syntax together has the impact at the second stage. An experiment that compares the objected-oriented and relational models and query languages at the two stages provides fresh results.

  13. End User Query Performance: The Interaction of User Characteristics and Information Request Ambiguity.
    Paul L. Bowen, Fiona H. Rohde and Chiu Yueh Alice Wu

    This paper investigates the effects of personality characteristics on individuals’ abilities to resolve ambiguity in an information retrieval environment. In particular, this research examines the effects on query performance of the interaction of personality characteristics (as measured using the NEO PI-R) with information requests that contained extraneous, syntactic, or both extraneous and syntactic ambiguities. The results indicate that ambiguity affected performance. The results also show that various personality dimensions significantly affect end-users’ abilities to compose accurate queries. Neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness affected the number of errors made in the query formulations. Conscientiousness affected the length of time taken to compose the queries and neuroticism affected the confidence end users had in the accuracy of their queries. In addition, the results indicated that, while the personality dimensions affected performance, there was no interaction between the personality dimensions and ambiguity.

  14. Development of a Framework for Trust in Mobile Commerce.
    Keng Siau, Hong Sheng and Fiona Nah *

    Mobile commerce represents a significant development in e-commerce. Despite the potential of mobile commerce, trust is a major obstacle in its adoption and development. The focus of this research is to develop a framework to identify the factors influencing trust in mobile commerce and to explain the development of such trust using a means-ends objective network. We utilized the Value- Focused Thinking approach to interview subjects in order to identify their fundamental and means objectives concerning trust in mobile commerce and to construct a means-ends objective network. A trust framework is developed from the means-ends objective network. As one of the first research on trust in mobile commerce, the framework developed in this study provides valuable information for researchers and practitioners, and serves as a conceptual foundation for future research in mobile commerce.

  15. A Study of Task Characteristics and User Intention to Use Handheld Devices for Mobile Commerce.
    Xiaowen Fang, Susy Chan, Jacek Brzezinski and Shuang Xu *

    Interface design and the selection of appropriate tasks for small-screen mobile applications are issues critical for mobile commerce. Our earlier research has identified five major task factors that may influence user intention to use handheld devices for wireless applications. These factors are: perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness, perceived task complexity, and perceived security. We followed up with a questionnairebased empirical study to validate the relative impact of these proposed task factors on user intention to use handheld devices for mobile commerce. This paper confirms significant correlations between the task factors and user intention. However, only three of the five factors — perceived usefulness, perceived security, and perceived playfulness — are important to user intention, explaining 30% of the variations in a multiple regression model. This study makes a unique contribution to HCI and MIS research by providing empirical evidence of user perception of task characteristics for mobile commerce.

  16. Post-Adoption Behavior of Mobile Internet Users: A Model-Based Comparison between Continuers and Discontinuers.
    Hoyoung Kim and Jinwoo Kim *

    Many mobile Internet users are not continuing to use mobile Internet services after initial use. This study aims to explore how such users (discontinuers) differ from ongoing users (continuers) in terms of accepting mobile Internet technology. We propose an adoption model for the mobile Internet consisting of seven critical factors. An on-line survey was conducted on the basis of this model to compare
    continuers and discontinuers. The survey results show that discontinuers are more sensitive to usefulness and social influences in using mobile Internet services, while continuers are more sensitive to ubiquitous connectivity.

  17. Finding Common Ground Among HCI Reference Disciplines (Panel)
    Dennis Galletta, Jonathan Lazar, Judy Olson, Dov Te’eni, Marilyn Tremaine, and Jane Webster

    Five panelists provide an interesting set of contrasting points of view of the HCI field from four distinct disciplines: Business, Computer Science, Information Science, and Psychology. Panelists are asked to respond to six questions in their presentations that address what their particular field offers that is unique, what seems to be quite similar, the effects of the overlaps, and advice for the future. Many of the panelists represent multiple fields, providing a unique opportunity to address the issues of overlap.

  18. Is Relevance Relevant? Investigating Coherence in Knowledge Sharing Environments.
    Andrew Gemino, Drew Parker and Adrienne Olnick Kutzschan

    This paper focuses on the impact of relevant backgrounds on computer-mediated knowledge sharing and individual knowledge acquisition. An experiment is described based on the coherence principle from the Cognitive Theory of Multi-Media Learning. Results suggest groups using visual chat scored higher in retention and understanding than individuals working alone. In addition, participants using visual chat with relevant backgrounds obtained higher levels of understanding than participants using no relevance or irrelevant backgrounds. These results support the coherence principle in the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and suggest new directions in the design and evaluation of knowledge sharing environments.

  19. Interactivity and Control: the Case of Dynamic Maps for Navigation in Hypertext.
    Dov Te’eni and Hadar Ronen

    Rich information environments such as online tutorials and web-books pose considerable difficulties for users, of which the most notable is being ‘lost in hypertext’. If these environments are to become commonplace, they must be designed to relieve users of these difficulties. In this paper we study the effects of dynamic navigational maps on orientation and search performance. We designed a conceptual map that tracks the user’s position vis-à-vis the content of the web-book and the history of the user’s visits. We show how these maps improve search performance significantly in terms of efficiency (number of clicks) but only weakly in terms of time or accuracy. We call for more research on how to enhance user control in complex information environments.